Accuracy Assessment of Established Controls for Precise Positioning
using DGPS and CORS TESTING
Alabi A.O1,2*, Alademomi A.S1,2,3, Salami T.J1,2, Okutubo A.D1
, Oyedokun W.R1
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State,
Nigeria
2Geospatial and Environmental Research Group, University of Lagos, Nigeria
3Centre for Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, Suite C59, New Bannex Plaza, Wuse 2, Abuja, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: *aoalabi@unilag.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2024.01.02

View Abstract

ABSTRACT
Over the years, the control network has been used as the framework which serves as the basis for all
subsequent mapping and surveying work where the position of points on, beneath and above the earth is
precisely determined. The need for controls in surveying and mapping cannot be overemphasised especially
in projects that require precise measurements and plotting e.g. engineering and construction projects, land
mapping, archaeological surveys, geology, forestry, and hydrology. This study looks at the accuracy
assessment of established controls for precise positioning using differential global positioning system
(DGPS) and continuous operating reference stations (CORS). The focus of the study is to assess the
accuracy of controls established within the University of Lagos, Akoka campus using DGPS. The
coordinates of the existing controls within the University of Lagos were obtained and re-coordinated using
Stonex S900A (DGPS) referenced to CORS for precise measurements. The data obtained was processed
using the Trimble Business Center (TBC) software. The existing coordinates of controls and the newly
acquired ones were compared and contrasted. Various statistical analyses were done to assess the accuracy
of the controls established within the University of Lagos. Results show that the p-values for existing and
new horizontal coordinates of the controls are (E = 0.002768695 and N = 0.00036642) which is less than
the 0.01 p-value. Also, the p-value for existing and new vertical coordinates of the controls is 0.069657705
which is greater than the 0.01 p-value. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the existing and
the newly acquired horizontal coordinates of controls established within the campus at a 99% confidence
level but no significant difference between the existing and the newly acquired vertical coordinates of
controls established. The results obtained were presented in the form of tables.
Keywords: Controls, Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), Differential Global Positioning
System (DGPS), Precise Measurements, Trimble Business Center.

Accuracy Assessment of Established Controls for Precise Positioning using DGPS and CORS

Alabi A.O1,2*, Alademomi A.S1,2,3, Salami T.J1,2, Okutubo A.D1, Oyedokun W.R1

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria

2Geospatial and Environmental Research Group, University of Lagos, Nigeria

3Centre for Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, Suite C59, New Bannex Plaza, Wuse 2, Abuja, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: *aoalabi@unilag.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2024.01.02

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Over the years, the control network has been used as the framework which serves as the basis for all subsequent mapping and surveying work where the position of points on, beneath and above the earth is precisely determined. The need for controls in surveying and mapping cannot be overemphasised especially in projects that require precise measurements and plotting e.g. engineering and construction projects, land mapping, archaeological surveys, geology, forestry, and hydrology. This study looks at the accuracy assessment of established controls for precise positioning using differential global positioning system (DGPS) and continuous operating reference stations (CORS). The focus of the study is to assess the accuracy of controls established within the University of Lagos, Akoka campus using DGPS. The coordinates of the existing controls within the University of Lagos were obtained and re-coordinated using Stonex S900A (DGPS) referenced to CORS for precise measurements. The data obtained was processed using the Trimble Business Center (TBC) software. The existing coordinates of controls and the newly acquired ones were compared and contrasted. Various statistical analyses were done to assess the accuracy of the controls established within the University of Lagos. Results show that the p-values for existing and new horizontal coordinates of the controls are (E = 0.002768695 and N = 0.00036642) which is less than the 0.01 p-value. Also, the p-value for existing and new vertical coordinates of the controls is 0.069657705 which is greater than the 0.01 p-value. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the existing and the newly acquired horizontal coordinates of controls established within the campus at a 99% confidence level but no significant difference between the existing and the newly acquired vertical coordinates of controls established. The results obtained were presented in the form of tables.

 Keywords: Controls, Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), Precise Measurements, Trimble Business Center.

Evaluation of GNSS Radio Occultation Technology for Meteorological and Climate Applications over Nigeria

Moses M.1,*, Ibrahim U.S.1, and Akomolafe E.A.1

1Department of Geomatics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: mosesmefe@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0421

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The lack of conventional ground-based observations in the sub-Saharan African region poses significant challenges to understanding and monitoring the atmosphere. This is particularly true in the upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) regions, where the atmosphere’s dynamic nature and complex processes make observation difficult. However, the development of the GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique presents an exciting opportunity for meteorological and climatic research. This study focuses on assessing the feasibility of using the GNSS RO technique to observe the atmosphere in Nigeria. It evaluates the different GNSS RO missions and examines the distribution of events across Nigeria. The study found that the coverage of radio occultation (RO) missions varies significantly, depending on the orbit design of GNSS and low-earth orbiting satellites. Additionally, the quality of atmospheric profiles, specifically from the COSMIC mission, was assessed by comparing them to radiosonde observations in Nigeria. The results demonstrated strong agreement between the COSMIC profiles and radiosonde data, with absolute mean errors of 1.42C, 0.97mbar, 0.34mm/km, and 0.58mbar for temperature, pressure, refractivity, and vapour pressure profiles respectively. Lastly, two prominent climate change indicators (tropopause height (TH) and precipitable water vapour (PWV)) dominant in the UTLS region were derived from COSMIC profiles (2013-2016) over Nigeria, the results revealed very prominent seasonal patterns in the GNSS RO derived TH and PWV which precisely describes the atmosphere and seasons of the Nigerian region. The TH and PWV agree with radiosondes and ground-based GNSS measurements in the range of -1.98 to 3.13km and -0.40 to 5.58 mm, respectively. Improvements and future missions in GNSS RO will enhance the quantity and quality of occultation events in Nigeria. As a result, the GNSS RO technique will become an indispensable tool for operational atmospheric and climate research in Nigeria and the broader sub-Saharan Africa region

.Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Radio Occultation (RO), Tropopause height, Zenith Tropospheric Delay, Climate change, Precipitable Water vapour, Meteorology

Factors Influencing Customers’ Choice of Shopping Mode in Lagos Metropolis

Odebode A.A.1, Oyedele J.B2., Oyedokun E.O 3 and Ogunbayo O.T4

1,2,3Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

4Department of Property, Planning, and Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Science and Management, First Technical University, Ibadan, Oyo-State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: *adedayoayodeji@yahoo.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0411

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The study examined the factors that influence customers’ choice of mode of shopping with a view to knowing the significance of e-stores toward creating better customer shopping conditions to improve satisfaction and enhancing a sustainable shopping mall investment. Furthermore, the study purposively selected 57 e-store customers and 123 shopping mall customers totalling 180 respondents’ which forms the sample size for the study. The findings through factor analysis revealed that six factors influenced the choice of e-store patronage while shopping mall patronage is influenced by seven factors. 24-hour shopping, delivery of the product to destination, and convenience of product search are the top-rated factors influencing the e-store shopping experience, while the physical evaluation of products, “trialability” of products, and variety of products at the same place are the most significant factors that influence customers’ shopping mall experiences. The paper suggests that managers should improve on the factors that influence the choice of shopping malls to attract more patronage which is pertinent to understand the key factors that could guide commercial real estate investors to create customer value and enhance sustainable real estate investment.

 Keywords: Choice, Commercial Real Estate Investment, E-Stores, Factors Influencing, Shopping Malls

Performance Evaluation of Medium Resolution Satellite Images in Bathymetry Estimation for Imo River

Akwaowo U. Ekpa1, Itoro B. Udoh*2, and Aniekan E. Eyoh3

1,2,3 Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: * itoroudoh@uniuyo.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0434

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Medium resolution satellite imageries are prominently used in bathymetry estimation due to high cost of accessing high resolution images and obtaining in-situ data. In this study, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 medium resolution satellite images were explored in estimating bathymetry for a section of Imo River with underlying aim of evaluating their performances. Lyzenga log linear and Stumpf log ratio empirical models were adopted. Image pre-processing involved atmospheric correction, cloud masking, sun glint removal and low pass filtering. Comparison with field-based reference depths showed that deepest estimated depth from both satellites images was approximately 10 m compared to 12 m depth obtained from field-based sounding. Coefficient of determination shows that Landsat-8 averagely estimated depths by 57% while Sentinel-2 showed 46% performance. Sentinel-2 had the highest and lowest root mean square error of 1.9 and 1.5 based on Lyzenga and Stumpf model respectively, while Landsat-8 had root mean square error of 1.7 and 1.8 from both models. Fidelity of Sentinel-2 derived bathymetry was greatly impacted by cloud and radiometric effects despite its high spatial resolution and applied corrections. Results of the study revealed that environmental conditions and water body properties have significant impact in satellite bathymetry estimation from medium resolution images.

 Keywords: Landsat-8, Sentinel-2, Imo River, Inland Waterway, Satellite-derived Bathymetry

Change Detection in the Land Surface Temperature and NDVI of Okomu National Park and Adjoining Communities, Edo State, Nigeria

Osadolor, N.1* and Dododawa Z.2

1,2Department of Forest Resources and Wildlife Management, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: nosayaba.ehondor@uniben.edu

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0430

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of temperature on the forest resource and estimate the extent of changes in the environment of Okomu National Park for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 using satellite imagery analysis. The study used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover, and land surface temperature (LST) data acquired from Landsat. The acquired data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and correlations were investigated using regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. For correlation analysis, LST and NDVI were both divided into five classes. Fron the results obtained, the NDVI map provided that the high category of the forest cover classes had degraded to medium and low classes, and the values of 2000, 2010 and 2020 indicates that the land cover had experienced an evident degradation over the study periods. The NDVI high class of 184.24 km2 of 2000 was reduced to 38.07 km2 in 2020. The values of the 2000 LST ranged of the from 19.1632 (low) – 34.4896 (high) degrees; value for 2010 was low: 31.1872 – high: 43.0681°C and 2020 was 18.1622 – high: 25.061°C. The correlation analysis reveals that the R2 = 0.981, 0.7198, 0.9835 for years 2000, 2010 and 2020 respectively. The study showed that year 2010 had the highest LST over the area, with LST reducing by 2020. The LST map also revealed that high temperature was obtained in the north eastern section of the map where there the percentage of built-up areas was highest. The conversion of the forests to other land use/landcover classes will lead to increased temperature and cause decline in forest biodiversity.

Keywords: Temperature, Vegetation Index, Forest Cover, Correlation, Okomu

Reliability Evaluation of Secondary Distribution System in Garki – Area Three F.C.T, Abuja 33/11kV Distribution Substation

Ibu A.Y.1, Okorie P.U.2*, Shehu G.S.3 and Abdulkarim A.4

1,2,3,4Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria Corresponding Author: *patrickubeokorie@yahoo.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0435

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

This research work is centered on reliability assessment of the power apparatus of Garki – Area three 33/11KV distribution Substation as a case study. The aim is to established the frequency and the duration of the outages.  Data were collected for the period of 12month (from April 2020 to March 2021) from the substation daily log book. We used Historical category of reliability analysis in assessing reliability of the distribution system. Hence, all data collected were computed and analyzed using fault tree analysis method, reliability block diagram and exponential modeling method. The results obtained shows that the total failure rate of the substation within the study period was 0.773896146. Feeder 5 with failure rate of 0.16874 has the highest outage of all the feeders. The reliability of the substation within the period of study was 0.461212611 which shows poor performances as compare to a standard bench mark of 0.999. The worst period of outages was in the month of May, 2020 due to rainy, windy and storm was at its peak. The total interruption as at May 2020 was 225.60 hours which is approximately 9 days total black out for the period of the study. While the best month was October 2020 with 96% availability of 92.11hours approximately 3days black out within the period of study. The substation is an injection substation originally design for 30MVA capacity with 2x 15MVA main power transformer, but during the period of this study one of the 15MVA Transformer was out of it service due to fault. Consequently, the major problem affecting the reliability of this substation is capacity shortage. Therefore, the substation needs to be improved and substation equipment need to be upgraded.

be provided for indexing purpose.

 Keywords: reliability, failure rate, outage, frequency, duration, substation, distribution network

Measuring and Modelling Overruns in Highway Project Costs in Nigeria

Ogbu C. P1* and Adindu C. C2

1Department of Quantity Surveying, University of Benin, Edo State

2Department of Project Management, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State

*Corresponding Author: chukwuemeka.ogbu@uniben.edu

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0433

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Overruns in highway project costs are pervasive globally. Recent attempts at predicting highway cost overruns predominantly rely on the use of after-the-fact machine learning predictive models that mainly address developed country contexts. The present study estimated the extent of cost overrun in Nigerian highway projects, and developed a regression model for predicting cost overruns in such projects based on the winning tender. Secondary data for the study was obtained from the website of the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, and covered the period 2002 to 2015. The overall average cost overrun in Nigerian highway projects was determined to be 17.37%. Additionally, a logarithmic model for estimating cost overrun at the pre-award stage of highway projects was obtained as . In the context of this study, it is better to estimate overruns in highway projects after the successful bidder has been identified, and to add the estimated cost overrun as a contingency sum to the contractor’s bid at that stage. Measures for mitigating cost overrun in highway projects in Nigeria should be intensified.

 Keywords: Cost Overrun, Highway, Modelling, Regression

Level of Adoption of Green Supply Chain Management Technologies and Practices in Selected Pharmaceutical and Textile Firms in Southwestern Nigeria

Ojo-Emmanuel G.1, Ayanlade O.S.2* and Jegede M.O2

 National Centre for Technology Management, Abuja, Nigeria

2African Institute for Science Policy and Innovation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: *osayanlade@oauife.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.03.0323

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The study examined the level of adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) technologies and practices in selected pharmaceutical and textile firms in Southwestern Nigeria. The study was carried out in 10 pharmaceutical and 10 textile firms in Lagos and Ogun States, because of the high concentration of industrial firms in these two states. Primary data were collected through two sets of structured questionnaires administered to 1 Production Manager; 2 Suppliers; 3 Distributors; 3 Retailers; and 3 Consumers in each firm, making a total of two hundred and forty (240) respondents. The harvested quantitative data were subjected to frequencies and mean analysis in SPSS. This study used five stages of adoption to measure the level of adoption of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) technologies and practices, which were Awareness, Interested, Evaluating, Trying, and Adoption stages. Out of the eighteen technologies and practices presented, none of the selected firms is in the adoption stage for any of the technologies or practices presented. However, the firms are already in Trying stage in acquiring green materials and sourcing ethically (Mean 3.5-4.4), while all other remaining technologies and practices were still being evaluated (Mean 2.5-3.44). The study concluded that the extent of adoption of green supply chain management technologies and practices in the pharmaceutical and textile firms is very low.

Keywords: Green Supply Chain, Green Supply Chain Management technologies, Green Supply Chain Management Practices, Pharmaceutical Firms, Textile Firms.

 

An Investigation of the Performance of Geospatial Features in Machine Learning Feature Selection Techniques

Taiwo, Tolu A*1, Olusina J. O. 2, Hamid-Mosaku A. I.3, and Abiodun O. E.4

1,2,3,4Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: * tolutaiwo75@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0422

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the performance of geospatial features (GSF) in feature selection techniques. Five datasets – socioeconomic, whether, property, historic and geospatial datasets – collected from poor households in Nyanya-Mararaba Town in Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory were used. The five datasets, comprising a total of twenty-nine features, were passed through five feature selection algorithms to select few features that give optimal results; viz: Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC), Information Gain (IG), Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA).  Four geospatial features – Travel time, Shortest distance, Height difference, and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) type – were examined. The techniques were implemented and the experiment carried out with codes in Jupyter Notebook.  Results show that PCC selected two GSF: Travel time and Shortest distance. IG selected two GSF: Travel time and Shortest distance. RFE selected two GSF: Travel time and Shortest distance. Both LASSO and PCA selected three GSF: Travel time, Shortest distance and Height difference.

 

Keywords: Water consumption, Geospatial features, Machine learning, Feature selection techniques

The Dynamics of ERA5 and GNSS-Derived Precipitable Water Vapour in the Climatic Zones of Nigeria

Ojegbile, B.M.1*, Okolie, C.J.1, Omogunloye, O.G.1, Abiodun, O.E.1, Olaleye, J.B.1

1Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: babatundeojegbile@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0429

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Precipitable water vapour (PWV) is a crucial atmospheric parameter that measures the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere above a specific location. The analysis of PWV variation is required to improve the understanding of climatic variability. The state-of-the-art fifth generation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA5) which provides historical PWV records has gained prominence in the research community. The ERA5 dataset requires validation using in-situ ground observations such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). However, there is a limited understanding of the climatic and seasonal variability of ERA5 PWV over Nigeria. The sparse GNSS data coverage in previous studies has also limited their potential for correlating the PWV variations with significant or severe weather occurrences. This study investigates the spatio-temporal and seasonal correlation of ERA5 PWV with the GNSS-derived PWV over Nigeria between 2011 and 2016, using GNSS observations from the Nigerian GNSS Network (NIGNET). The GNSS observations were processed using Precise Point Positioning software to derive the Zenith Tropospheric Delay and its products. Subsequently, the PWV was derived from the Zenith Wet Delay. The quantitative analysis was facilitated using spatial interpolation and statistical metrics. The findings reveal a very close correlation between ERA5 PWV and the GNSS-derived PWV across all climatic regions in Nigeria, with the highest correlations occurring in the Sudan/Sahel region (r: 0.96 – 0.98). In the dry season, there is a decrease in PWV from lower to higher latitudes. During the wet season of 2012 which recorded severe precipitation and flooding, the highest PWV content occurred in the mangrove and evergreen climatic regions located in south-west and south-eastern Nigeria. This study has proven the utility of the ERA5 PWV for mapping and monitoring the water vapour content and for long-term climate studies over Nigeria.

 Keywords: Global navigation satellite systems, Precise point positioning, Precipitable water vapour, Severe precipitation, ERA5

Geospatial Mapping of Groundwater Contamination Vulnerability in Lagos Mainland, Lagos State

Alademomi A. S.1,3*, Jimoh O.A.1, Oladosu S.O.2, Oguntade O.F.1, and Adekola R.1

1,Surveying and Geoinformatics Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos

2,Department of Geomatics, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Edo State, Nigeria.

3,Centre for Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, Suite C59, New Bannex Plaza, Wuze 2, Abuja, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author’s Email: salademomi@unilag.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0428

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The rapid urbanization of recent years has led to a surge in urban population, driving up the demand for water resources. This has taken a toll on groundwater, both in terms of quantity and quality. Anthropogenic activities, change in land use, and changes in topography have rendered groundwater highly susceptible to contamination. To ensure sustainable water utilization, a robust water management system is essential. This study focuses on assessing groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Mainland Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos, a region grappling with urbanization challenges. We utilized geological and hydrogeological data from existing sources and collected spatial data, including borehole coordinates, road networks, river locations, topographical features, and geological data, which were organized into a geodatabase for geospatial analysis. Our approach involved the DRASTIC model, accounting for aquifer parameters like depth to water, net recharge, aquifer characteristics, Vadose zone influence, and hydraulic conductivity. This model was used to create groundwater vulnerability and risk maps, validated using groundwater quality data. The results revealed diverse susceptibility levels within Mainland Lagos, with about 18% displaying high susceptibility, 25% moderate susceptibility, 28% low susceptibility, and 29% very low susceptibility to contamination. These maps offer vital insights for informed decision-making in water resource management. By enabling sustainable aquifer use, this study sets a precedent for resource preservation amid urbanization’s challenges.

Top of Form

 

Keywords: Groundwater, susceptibility, DRASTIC model, groundwater quality

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Ground Water Within Makera, Kaduna South, Nigeria

Sanusi S. B.1,*, Usman  A.1, and Umar M. K.2

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Tafawa Balewa Way, PMB 2339, Kaduna, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina

Corresponding Author: *sanusishuaibu@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0425

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

This study examined bacteriological and physicochemical properties of ground water within Makera district, Kaduna South Local Government, Kaduna State. A total of 10 borehole water were sampled from 5 different streets in Makera. The physiochemical parameters were determined by checking conductivity, pH, temperature, turbidity, Alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solid, colour and odour using standard procedures. Bacteriological analysis was determined using total viable count and most probable number (MPN) technique. This was followed by characterization and antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates. The result obtained shows that conductivity had the values from 0.50 to 1.26mg/l, total dissolved solid ranges from 2.24 to 5.46 mg/l, temperature ranges from 25.7 to 31.9 °C, pH value ranges from 5.65 to 7.5, Alkalinity ranges from 16 to 55mg/l, hardness ranges from 7.6 to 10.4 mg/l. The total viable count ranges from 1.0×10³ to 4.5×10³ CFU/ml for dilution of 10³. The MPN index result revealed that none of the water samples met the standard value of WHO for drinking water which state that, the presence of coliform in drinking water should be zero/100ml. Escherichia coli (90%) was found to have the highest number of isolated organisms followed by Salmonella sp (50%) and Shigella sp (30%). The antibiotic susceptible pattern of isolates in this study indicates that all the isolates were sensitive to gentamycin, tarivid and streptomycin. Ground water in this area is characterized by the present od coliforms indicating bacteriological contamination, as such, not suitable for drinking purpose. This study suggest that the evaluation of ground water quality parameters should be carried out periodically to protect the water resources.

 

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Most Probable Number, Coliform

Application of Stability Estimator Model in the Determination and Adjustment of Deformation Monitoring Points of Jimeta Bridge

Damuya, S. T1., Takana, A.2*. and Edan, J. D.3

1,2&3Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics Modibbo Adama University, Yola

Corresponding Author: *takana.abubakar@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0424

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Establishment of stable deformation monitoring points is a vital step in the monitoring of the stability of deformable structures. This research dwells on the establishment of a network of points to monitor the stability of Jimeta Bridge. Approximate horizontal coordinates of the monitoring points were first obtained using the GNSS receiver. The vertical coordinates of the same points were observed using a precise levelling operation.  The horizontal and vertical coordinates of the monitoring points were adjusted to get a stable network of points for the monitoring of the bridge. The adjustment was achieved using a Stability estimator model which is designed based on the principle of free network. The results show that the 66th baseline configuration returned the maximum redundancy number of the reliability matrix of 0.59880000000000 and a minimal trace of 0.00539266393068631. The aposteriori variances were computed and found to be 0.4465, for the test on reference points and 0.6177 for the test on object points. The computed aposteriori variance both falls between the lower and the upper limit. This signifies that the geometry of the monitoring network points remains intact with no distortion. The network of the monitoring points is therefore safe to be utilised in the monitoring of the stability of the Jimeta Bridge.

Keywords: Deformation Monitoring, Mathematical Model, Least Squares Adjustment, Stability Estimator and Engineering Structure

Spatial Distribution and Quality of Water Vending in Nsukka Urban, Enugu State Nigeria

Nnoli, C.I..1, Onyekwelu, C.A.,*1, Ayogu, C.N.,1 Ossai, O.G.1 and Ezugwu O.P.2

1,Department of Geography, University of Nigeria Nsukka.

2,Department of ICT, Centre for Basic Space Science and Astronomy CBSS-NASRDA

*corresponding author: anthony.onyekwelu@unn.edu.ng

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0406

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

The availability of potable water is a challenge in most developing countries, In Nigeria, more than 100 million people are required to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target for improved water by 2025 and it is unlikely to be achieved only by public supply. The Nsukka inhabitants have resorted to water vending activities in order to circumvent this problem. This aligns with SDG 6 for developing countries and propelled the quest to investigate the activities, spatial distribution and quality of vended water in Nsukka urban, Enugu State. For the study, a total number of 162 copies of questionnaire were administered to vendors which were selected by simple random sampling respectively. The result showed two main categories of water vendors namely; formal and informal vendors and their operations in Nsukka urban. Water analysis was done in the laboratory to ascertain the quality index of the source (formal vendors) which is 5 major boreholes in Nsukka urban and also samples were collected from two informal vendors for end users to ascertain the quality. Findings revealed that the water vending business especially the large scale water vendors make up to 8000 on daily basis while the small scale vendors gain an additional N5000 naira on the initial cost of  a full truck load of water. Laboratory analysis shows that the quality of water retailed from the different boreholes was good, in tandem with W.H.O standard but on the contrary the water quality from the vendors was not potable and contaminated from containerized supply especially rusty water tanks. We unequivocally recommend a routine and quality assurance checks before vendors are allowed to retail water to the masses in order to ensure compliance with W.H.O standard. We advocate that government should prioritize the provision of adequate pipe-borne water to residents of Nsukka Urban. 

Keywords: Water vending, Formal sector, Informal sector, Water quality, Spatial distribution

Spatio-Temporal Physico-Chemical Quality of Feroro Stream Sediment in Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Dawuda, K.D.*1, Adakole, J.A.1, Auta, J.1 and Japhet, W.S.2

1 Department of Biology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2 Department of Botany, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Corresponding author: * kabadiyadawuda@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0408

View Abstract

ABSTRACT

Streams are important in an ecosystem for the survival of aquatic organisms and their quality fundamentals.  Streams are important in an ecosystem and their quality is fundamental for the survival of aquatic organisms. Feroro stream is threatened from anthropogenic activities which affects the quality of its sediment temporally and spatially. Sediment was collected on monthly bases for twenty-four months from five stations along the stream based on anthropogenic activities using calibrated standard tubes. Physicochemical parameters were determined using multiparameter HANNA meter, Dissolved oxygen meter, Titration and Colorimeteric methods. All the physicochemical parameters were within World Health Organization limits and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality limits except Total Hardness (77.87-156.00mg/L), Dissolved Oxygen (1.51-3.79mg/L) and pH (6.59-8.67). There was significant (P<0.05) temporal variation in the physicochemical parameters but no significant variation spatially (P<0.05). Across the wet and dry seasons, there was significant variation except in Temperature (25.79 and 25.54) and Total Hardness (116.72mg/L and 121.66mg/L) respectively P<0.05.  There was a significant difference P<0.05, in all the parameters across the wet and dry seasons, except in Temperature (25.79 and 25.54) and Total Hardness (116.72mg/L and 121.66mg/L). 

Keywords: Feroro Stream, Physico-chemical Parameters, Spatial, Temporal, Sediment

Perceived Stress Scale and Nuclear Awareness among Nigerian Millennials: Implications for Sustainability

Allison J.1, and Allison M.2

1Government Blockchain Association, 4728 Pickett Road Fairfax, Virginia 22032 2028

2Health Information Management, Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: allisonj70ng@yahoo.com

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0418

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ABSTRACT

The ongoing Ukraine war, spike in living cost, Covid-19 pandemics, academic staff union strikes for better funding of education, and urban renewal activities that constitute significant sources of stressors with mental health implication in Nigerian cities. Studies have shown stress can blunt people’s sensitivity and ability to make informed decisions. Therefore, no better time than now to assess the perceived stress scale, decision-making process, and nuclear awareness among Nigerian millennials in the face of rising emergencies. Here the study showed significant majority of millennials are lower stress, making good decisions, and nuclear aware. The survey observations were in line with previous studies in the UK and the US, but did not support the same hypothesis. Considerably, the research highlights the concern of Nigerian millennials about the Ukraine conflict, the potential nuclear threat to cities, and increasing inequalities. There is need to rethink a statistical regularity and bridge existing knowledge gaps among respondents on the catastrophic effects of a nuclear world war including the demonstrated disregard for sustainability. It is important because they are not only the future leaders, but this is the millennial generation and the United Nations has stressed the need for greater nuclear awareness. An empirical survey using mixed-method, self-reporting questionnaires with 26 questions was adopted. The randomly sampled 38 Nigerian millennials in Port Harcourt, Akwa Ibom, and Bayelsa states was facilitated by faculty members of institutions in these states the researchers have rapport. The mean score of data collected were analysed. The conclusion is with recommendations for achieving greater sustainability and nuclear education while contributing to the prevention of potential catastrophe for humanity and our architectural heritage by cities’ obliteration.

Keywords:Perceived Stress Scale, Decision Making, Nuclear Awareness, Sustainability, Global Trade, Architectural Preservation, Cities Obliteration, Nuclear Winter

Petrophysical Appraisal of Sapele Deep Field, Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria

Airen, O. J.1, * and Mujakperuo B. J. O.1

1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City Edo State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: *osariere.airen@uniben.edu

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0419

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ABSTRACT

The distal field, Sapele Deep Field, is situated in the Niger Delta’s Northwestern region. The study had access to three wells (numbers 06, 17, and 18). Thirteen reservoirs were identified across the wells, and they were found at depths ranging from 2991.62 meters (9872.35 feet) to 3761.81 meters (12413.97 feet). The field is a brownfield with a total area of 16515.73 acres, and it has been producing hydrocarbon for over three decades. As a result, digital wireline well log data, including the neutron log, resistivity log, gamma-ray log, and density log, were used to carry out the reservoir petrophysical evaluation and gain a better understanding of the reservoir lithology and hydrocarbon potential. The research area’s average values for the following parameters are 6.67 m (22.01 ft) of net sand thickness, 0.21 (21%), 1454.05 mD of permeability, 0.16 mD of shale volume, 0.47 (net-to-gross), and 0.48 (48%), respectively, for water saturation (Sw).

Keywords: Petrophysical evaluation, Lithology, Gamma-ray log, resistivity log, density log

Appraising Heavy – Metals distribution in Street Dust of Ketu-Mile 12 Area of Lagos-State, South-Western, Nigeria

Ojiodu C.C.1*, Moses, D. U1, Damazio, O. A2, Oshin, T. T.

1College Central Research Laboratory, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba – Lagos, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemical Sciences, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu – Lagos, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: Ojioduchekwube@yahoo.com 

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2023.02.0420

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ABSTRACT

This research reports the results of Heavy metals Zn, Pb,Cu, Ni, Cd contents of Street dust of Ketu-Mile 12 Area of Lagos – State , South – Western, Nigeria. The dust samples were collected randomly from August – December, 2022 at ten different locations of Ketu – Mile 12 Area by sweeping surface dust into plastic waste packer using plastic brush and transferred into pre-labeled polythene. The samples collected at each location were filtered through 75µm stainless steel sieve, weighed and digested with appropriate amount of HNO3 and H2O for 2 hours. The concentrations of Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).Results showed that the average concentration of Heavy metals were: Zn 176.43 mg/kg, Cu 162.25mg/kg, Pb 32.22mg/kg, Ni 6.98mg/kg and Cd 0.33mg/kg with the most abundant pollutant Heavy metal was Zn while the least abundant was Cd. The most polluted site was Owode – Onirin 263.54mg/kg while the least polluted site was Alapere 2.269mg/kg. The Principal Component Analysis PCA showed that the major sources of heavy metals are mainly anthropogenic and two factors PC1 and PC2 accounted for 72.95% of the total variance. Each of these factors were identified as sources of heavy metals in dust of Ketu – Mile 12 area with Traffic/ Vehicular emission dominating. Pearson’s significant correlation analysis revealed that there is strong positive correlation between the Heavy metals at 0.01 levels. The concentration of Heavy metals exceeded the recommended limits of the Federal Ministry of Environment (FME), European communities (EC) and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) permissible level. Therefore, there is need for environmental monitoring, safety and management of Ketu – Mile 12 dust.

Keywords: Environment, Sample, Significant, Concentration, Dust, Anthropogenic