Vol. 4 No. 2 – October 2020
Makinde E. O., Paul T. E., Olatunbosun O. E. and Nwilo P. C.
This study assessed the vulnerability of landfill site in Olusosun, Lagos Nigeria using modified DRASTIC (DRASTIC L) model in a geographical information system environment. It also analyzed water samples with a view to determining the amount of trace metals concentrate present. Water samples were collected from different Boreholes and Wells with a radius of 500m to the landfill site. The modified DRASTIC (DRASTIC L) based on eight parameters such as Depth to water, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, Hydraulic conductivity and Distance to landfill site. The vulnerability index was calculated using a sum overlay of the eight parameters. ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to integrate all these parameters together to obtain Boreholes and Wells vulnerable zones I areas. The results showed that out of a total of 228.38 hectares, only about 47.46 hectare was observed to be within the low vulnerable zone having a DRASTIC index range between 113 – 136; while about 130.65 hectares were found to be in the moderately vulnerable zone with a DRASTIC index ranging between 136 and 144. About 50.28 hectares were within the high vulnerability zone having a DRASTIC index range between 144 and 163.Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used for to test the concentrations of the heavy metals in the water samples collected and found that aside the presence of other heavy metals, Chromium was found to be present in most Wells and Boreholes measuring between 0.08 mg/L and 0.43 mg/L which is above the World Health Organization Standard of 0.05 mg/L for drinking water. This study concluded that the groundwater is contaminated and the level of pollution is directly related to the distance from the landfill.
Keywords: Landfill, contamination, Pollution, GIS, Vulnerability, Environment
Eyenubo O. B., Peretomode O. and Osakwe S. A.
The study presents the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution by plantain stalk (musa paradisiacal) in relation to its equilibrium and kinetics characteristics, using batch adsorption method. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR Spectrometry. The following functional groups were observed; hydroxyl, carbonyl, amine and phosphate groups which confirms the potential capability of sorption of the biosorbent. The study shows that there was optimum adsorption at pH 6.0 (75.41%) for Cu (II) ions. There was significant adsorption from the lowest to the highest time (5-180mins) and also there is a significant removal of the metal ions from the lowest to the highest concentration (10 mg/l-500 mg/l). The study also revealed that adsorption of Cu(II) ions by plantain stalk from aqueous solution is best described by Langmuir isotherm due to its R2 values of 0.950. When both order rate equations were tested, data showed a good compliance with the pseudo-second-order rate constant for Cu(II) ions due to its R2 value of 0.999, while the data for pseudo-first-order did not show a good compliance with Cu(II) ions due to its R2 value of 0.549. The results obtained from this study show that plantain stalk is a good adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Adsorption, Cu (II) ions, Plantain stalk, Kinetic models, Sorption equilibrium
Ogbonna P.C., Ukpai N.P., Obasi, K.O. and Umezuruike S.O.
Quarrying as a land use is a potential source of water pollution but lack of access to safe drinking water has impelled people to make use of pond water from quarry sites. This study investigated the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals of water samples collected at China quarry site in Ngwogwo Ivo Local Government of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The concentrations of Cd (0.01±0.00 to 0.02±0.00 mg/l), Pb (6.70±0.78 to 7.87±1.08 mg/l), Ni (1.03±0.04 to 1.37±0.04 mg/l), As (1.99±0.02 to 2.35±0.09 mg/l), Fe (3.66±0.44 to 4.18±0.04 mg/l) and Zn (2.47±0.06 to 3.17±1.13 mg/l) were higher than the permissible limit of drinking water by World Health Organization, WHO and Standard Organization of Nigeria, SON. Also, the values of biochemical oxygen demand, BOD (37.57±1.44 to 53.13±0.86 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand, COD (59.55±0.51 to 61.28±0.64 mg/l), dissolved oxygen, DO (5.14±1.51 to 5.75±1.09 mg/l), Mn (3.64±0.91 to 5.10±1.27 %) and Ca (91.88±0.18 to 102.83±0.59 %) were higher than the permissible limit recommended by WHO. Consequently, it is recommended that quarry workers and inhabitants of Ngwogwo should be discouraged from making use of the pond water since it is not fit and will expose them to serious health challenges. In addition, Ebonyi State Government should demand Environmental Impact Assessment report from miners before issuing operating license to them.
Keywords: Quarry, Pond Water, Heavy Metal, Macro-nutrient, Physical Properties
Ochor N. O., Onyeizu R. U., Uchendu U. I. and Ikpeazu O. V.
This study assessed water sources (treated water, pond water and harvested rain water) and effluents discharge from a bottling company, Aba, Abia State. A single factor experiment in randomized complete block designs with three replications was used to assess the physicochemical properties of water at various sources. The result shows that pond water and rain water gave significantly the highest and least N and P contents respectively (N: 33.60-5.60 mg/L; P: 12.40-10.30 mg/L). The K contents of the various water point sources were significantly higher as follows: Pond water > Effluent water > Rain water > Treated water (6.50 > 0.30 > 0.20 > 0.20). Pond water was statistically highest in Mg contents when compared to other sources. The Fe contents were significantly higher as follows: Effluent water > Rain water > Treated water > Pond water, while Fe content in pond water wasn’t significantly higher when compared to its content in Rain water. Pond water and treated water were significantly the highest and least (P<0.05) in organic matter (OM) and Organic Carbon (OC) contents respectively. No significant differences existed between color intensity and turbidity values of the various water point sources. Effluent water from the industry and pond water were significantly the least in DO values respectively. Rain water and pond water were significantly the least in BOD concentrations. Effluent water was significantly the highest in TSS values, while the least TSS values were significantly recorded for Treated water and Rain water.
Keywords: Bottling company, Effluent, Nutrients, Wastewater, Water sources
Bello-Yusuf S. and Bello A.
Sustainability, quest for greener environment and energy/cost savings are some of the driving forces for the global push in utilizing renewable energy resources for powering street lights especially those located in densely populated areas. Photo-voltaic and LED technologies are considered by many as a match made in heaven as they are essential if not mandatory for achieving these goals. For 11 years (between 2007 and 2018), there has been a significant effort by Sokoto State Government to light up streets in the central part of the city using these two technologies. Using a descriptive approach, the paper established the status, challenges and opportunities associated with solar powered Light Emitting Diode (LED) street lights in Sokoto over the 11 years period. Out of 450 installed units in the city, only 25% are functional at present. The number is also gradually diminishing. The technological, social and institutional challenges associated with managing LED street light devices in the city were equally discussed. Promises of the technology, climatic conditions of the city and current push for metropolitan security are among the potential drivers for continuous implementation of the technology in the city. However, while the available solar power in the city serves as a driving force, its association with higher temperatures makes equipment maintenance difficult thereby undermining sustainability.
Keywords: Sustainability, Solar energy, LED, Urban management, Renewable resources