CURRENT ISSUE

Vol. 4 No. 2 – October 2020

Articles


Vulnerability Assessment of Water in Landfill Site and Environs: A Case Study of Olusosun in Lagos, Nigeria

Makinde E. O., Paul T. E., Olatunbosun O. E. and Nwilo P. C.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0165

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the vulnerability of landfill site in Olusosun, Lagos Nigeria using modified DRASTIC (DRASTIC L) model in a geographical information system environment. It also analyzed water samples with a view to determining the amount of trace metals concentrate present. Water samples were collected from different Boreholes and Wells with a radius of 500m to the landfill site. The modified DRASTIC (DRASTIC L) based on eight parameters such as Depth to water, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, Hydraulic conductivity and Distance to landfill site. The vulnerability index was calculated using a sum overlay of the eight parameters. ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to integrate all these parameters together to obtain Boreholes and Wells vulnerable zones I areas. The results showed that out of a total of 228.38 hectares, only about 47.46 hectare was observed to be within the low vulnerable zone having a DRASTIC index range between 113 – 136; while about 130.65 hectares were found to be in the moderately vulnerable zone with a DRASTIC index ranging between 136 and 144. About 50.28 hectares were within the high vulnerability zone having a DRASTIC index range between 144 and 163.Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used for to test the concentrations of the heavy metals in the water samples collected and found that aside the presence of other heavy metals, Chromium was found to be present in most Wells and Boreholes measuring between 0.08 mg/L and 0.43 mg/L which is above the World Health Organization Standard of 0.05 mg/L for drinking water. This study concluded that the groundwater is contaminated and the level of pollution is directly related to the distance from the landfill.

Keywords: Landfill, contamination, Pollution, GIS, Vulnerability, Environment

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Biosorption of Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution using Plantain Stalk (Musa Paradisiaca L.)

Eyenubo O. B., Peretomode O. and Osakwe S. A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0202

ABSTRACT
The study presents the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution by plantain stalk (musa paradisiacal) in relation to its equilibrium and kinetics characteristics, using batch adsorption method. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR Spectrometry. The following functional groups were observed; hydroxyl, carbonyl, amine and phosphate groups which confirms the potential capability of sorption of the biosorbent. The study shows that there was optimum adsorption at pH 6.0 (75.41%) for Cu (II) ions. There was significant adsorption from the lowest to the highest time (5-180mins) and also there is a significant removal of the metal ions from the lowest to the highest concentration (10 mg/l-500 mg/l). The study also revealed that adsorption of Cu(II) ions by plantain stalk from aqueous solution is best described by Langmuir isotherm due to its R2 values of 0.950. When both order rate equations were tested, data showed a good compliance with the pseudo-second-order rate constant for Cu(II) ions due to its R2 value of 0.999, while the data for pseudo-first-order did not show a good compliance with Cu(II) ions due to its R2 value of 0.549. The results obtained from this study show that plantain stalk is a good adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, Cu (II) ions, Plantain stalk, Kinetic models, Sorption equilibrium

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Appraising the Physico-chemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals in Pond Water at Quarry Site in Ngwogwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Ogbonna P.C., Ukpai N.P., Obasi, K.O. and Umezuruike S.O.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0203

ABSTRACT
Quarrying as a land use is a potential source of water pollution but lack of access to safe drinking water has impelled people to make use of pond water from quarry sites. This study investigated the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals of water samples collected at China quarry site in Ngwogwo Ivo Local Government of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The concentrations of Cd (0.01±0.00 to 0.02±0.00 mg/l), Pb (6.70±0.78 to 7.87±1.08 mg/l), Ni (1.03±0.04 to 1.37±0.04 mg/l), As (1.99±0.02 to 2.35±0.09 mg/l), Fe (3.66±0.44 to 4.18±0.04 mg/l) and Zn (2.47±0.06 to 3.17±1.13 mg/l) were higher than the permissible limit of drinking water by World Health Organization, WHO and Standard Organization of Nigeria, SON. Also, the values of biochemical oxygen demand, BOD (37.57±1.44 to 53.13±0.86 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand, COD (59.55±0.51 to 61.28±0.64 mg/l), dissolved oxygen, DO (5.14±1.51 to 5.75±1.09 mg/l), Mn (3.64±0.91 to 5.10±1.27 %) and Ca (91.88±0.18 to 102.83±0.59 %) were higher than the permissible limit recommended by WHO. Consequently, it is recommended that quarry workers and inhabitants of Ngwogwo should be discouraged from making use of the pond water since it is not fit and will expose them to serious health challenges. In addition, Ebonyi State Government should demand Environmental Impact Assessment report from miners before issuing operating license to them.

Keywords: Quarry, Pond Water, Heavy Metal, Macro-nutrient, Physical Properties

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Assessment of Industrial Influent and Effluent Water Quality at a Bottling Company in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

Ochor N. O., Onyeizu R. U., Uchendu U. I. and Ikpeazu O. V.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0200

ABSTRACT
This study assessed water sources (treated water, pond water and harvested rain water) and effluents discharge from a bottling company, Aba, Abia State. A single factor experiment in randomized complete block designs with three replications was used to assess the physicochemical properties of water at various sources. The result shows that pond water and rain water gave significantly the highest and least N and P contents respectively (N: 33.60-5.60 mg/L; P: 12.40-10.30 mg/L). The K contents of the various water point sources were significantly higher as follows: Pond water > Effluent water > Rain water > Treated water (6.50 > 0.30 > 0.20 > 0.20). Pond water was statistically highest in Mg contents when compared to other sources. The Fe contents were significantly higher as follows: Effluent water > Rain water > Treated water > Pond water, while Fe content in pond water wasn’t significantly higher when compared to its content in Rain water. Pond water and treated water were significantly the highest and least (P<0.05) in organic matter (OM) and Organic Carbon (OC) contents respectively. No significant differences existed between color intensity and turbidity values of the various water point sources. Effluent water from the industry and pond water were significantly the least in DO values respectively. Rain water and pond water were significantly the least in BOD concentrations. Effluent water was significantly the highest in TSS values, while the least TSS values were significantly recorded for Treated water and Rain water.

Keywords: Bottling company, Effluent, Nutrients, Wastewater, Water sources

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Energy Sustainability Paradox: Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Solar LED Street Lights in Sokoto, Nigeria

Bello-Yusuf S. and Bello A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0204

ABSTRACT
Sustainability, quest for greener environment and energy/cost savings are some of the driving forces for the global push in utilizing renewable energy resources for powering street lights especially those located in densely populated areas. Photo-voltaic and LED technologies are considered by many as a match made in heaven as they are essential if not mandatory for achieving these goals. For 11 years (between 2007 and 2018), there has been a significant effort by Sokoto State Government to light up streets in the central part of the city using these two technologies. Using a descriptive approach, the paper established the status, challenges and opportunities associated with solar powered Light Emitting Diode (LED) street lights in Sokoto over the 11 years period. Out of 450 installed units in the city, only 25% are functional at present. The number is also gradually diminishing. The technological, social and institutional challenges associated with managing LED street light devices in the city were equally discussed. Promises of the technology, climatic conditions of the city and current push for metropolitan security are among the potential drivers for continuous implementation of the technology in the city. However, while the available solar power in the city serves as a driving force, its association with higher temperatures makes equipment maintenance difficult thereby undermining sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, Solar energy, LED, Urban management, Renewable resources

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Effectiveness and Efficiency of Solid Waste Services in Lagos State, Nigeria

Ayadi F. S. and Alo B. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0214

ABSTRACT
Lagos is the largest producer of municipal solid waste in Nigeria, yet it is the smallest of Nigeria’s 36 states with the highest projected population, highest level of urbanization and it houses Nigeria’s largest chief port, and principal economic and cultural centres. Out of the total waste generated, only about 73 percent actually got to the final disposal site. There is a possibility of inefficient and ineffective municipal solid waste management system in place which can damage the ecosystem services, contaminate ground and surface water, creates greenhouse gas emissions, increase disease transmission, damages ecosystem services and discourages tourism and other businesses. To this end, this study analysed the efficiency and effectiveness of solid waste services and; the efficiency and effectiveness of solid waste services in Lagos State using primary data and conducting statistical tests. The study found a general agreement on what constitutes efficient and effective solid waste services. However, the study concluded that the waste management system in Lagos State is inefficient, ineffective and therefore; unsustainable. The study therefore recommends among others the urgent need to re-organize the waste management institutions for effective and efficient performance. This requiressubstantial planning ability, appropriate equipment and continuous managerial optimization of vehicles and workers productivity,efficient vehicle routing, better designed vehicles, managerial incentives, faster vehicle repairs, vehicle standardization.

Keywords: Municipal solid wastes, Efficient and effective, Cart pushers, Environment, Landfills

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Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Electronic-Waste Management in Lagos Using Alaba International Market and Ikeja Computer Village as Case Studies

Alani R., Ogunbanmwo A., Nwude D. and Ogbaje, M.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0212

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this research was to assess the extent of the problems associated with inappropriate e-waste management and recycling practices. Electronic wastes (E-wastes) are generated from products that are designed for use with a maximum voltage of 1000 volts for alternating current and 1500 volts for direct current. These wastes contain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury, cadmium, brominated flame-retardants, valuable metals such as aluminium, nickel, copper, and certain precious metals such as gold, silver and platinum group metals (PGMs) which pose both human and environmental health threats. They have negative impacts on the health of workers and nearby residents; hence, residents of buildings located around and beside e-wastes dumpsites were randomly selected for this study. Well, run-off and borehole water samples as well as soil samples from different sites in Alaba international market, and Ikeja computer village in Lagos, Nigeria were analyzed for zinc, lead, iron, copper, nickel and chromium. Using additional information from questionnaires and interviews, impacts of e-waste dumps on the health of workers and residents near the study areas were investigated. The results were analysed using descriptive frequency count and tables which confirmed the presence of heavy metals in soils and water samples of the case study areas and hence appropriate recommendations were outlined to address the menace of e-waste disposal and as well as the need for improvement in e-waste management and recycling for economic opportunities and improved health standard within the Lagos Metropolis.

Keywords: E-wastes, Environmental health, Heavy metals, Hazardous materials, Lagos metropolis

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Spatio-temporal Analysis of South Western States of Nigeria using Remote Sensing Techniques

Oseni A. E. and Ode G. O.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0196

ABSTRACT
The south western states of Nigeria have witnessed urban growth over time and the effect of this is urban growth has resulted in loss of vegetation, waterbody, bare soil, mangroves and gain in built up area for residential and commercial purposes. This research utilizes Remote Sensing techniques in mapping of Land Use/Land Cover changes that has taken place in south western states of Nigeria between a period of 15 years from 2003 to 2018 at a five year interval using Multi temporal Landsat satellite images (MSS, TM, and ETM+).Using supervised classification algorithm, the images were classified into bare soil, built-up area, vegetation and water body, which was used to carry out change detection analysis or time series analysis. Change detection analyses were carried out on the imageries to obtain the physical expansion of the area due to various land use. Results obtained from the analysis of built-up area dynamics for fifteen years revealed that the states have been undergoing urban expansion processes at the detriment of other landcover. The expansion of the built-up area from the analysis shows that the urban center is spreading to adjoining non-built-up areas in all directions. The analysis and quantification of the spatial trend revealed that urban expansion patterns and developmental processes of the past trends and present trends can provide better understanding of the dynamics of spatial increase in built up area and guide for sustainable urban development planning for future urban growth.

Keywords: Land use, Urban expansion, Satellite imagery, Change detection, Supervised classification

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Bathymetry and Siltation of Oyan Dam, Ogun State, Nigeria

Adejare Q. A., Azeez S. A., Aderibigbe Q. J. and Adewara M. B.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0208

ABSTRACT
Dams are reservoirs established for different reasons. Oyan dam, Ogun State, Nigeria was established and commissioned on the 29th March 1983 to supply water to Lagos State and Abeokuta for municipal uses, with power generation potentials to support Lower Ogun Irrigation Project. However, flooding has become an annual experience of downstream communities along Ogun river especially when the Oyan dam is opened; it has really becomes remarkable since the flood events of 2012. This project investigates the level of siltation and floods menace adjoining Oyan dam and its environ. An integrated methodology of bathymetric survey, total station traversing and satellite imagery were used to acquire geospatial locations of the dam features and other details within the dam through the process of traversing, heightening and detailing. The field investigation was conducted between January 2018 and January 2020 to determine dam bed topography with the deployment of integrated approach. The collected data were processed using Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), HYPACK software and ArcGIS 10.6 software. The maximum and minimum depth within the dam are -4.072m and -21.588m respectively. The cross sections are represented for each 200m length of the dam. Furthermore, volumetric analysis of sediment budget was computed to be 251.7x106m3 and compared with designed reservoir capacity of 270x106m3. From the study, a loss of about 18.2x106m3 approximately 6.7% was recorded. Satellite imagery shows the rate of change within Oyan dam and its catchment area downstream based on Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) generated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) the maximum and minimum elevation in the catchment are 29m and 182m respectively. The study recommends that deepen and training of Ogun river and all adjoining drainages system within the study corridor to retain more water when peak rainfall is recorded.

Keywords: Dam, Dredging, Catchment, Floods, Siltation

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Spatial characterization of noise levels at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Oyedepo J. A., Omoniyi D. M., Oluyege D. E. and Babajide E. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0218

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the spatial variability in the distribution of noise pollution in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Measurements of noise were taken from 10 locations on campus namely; the academic environment including the University library and college lecture auditoria, the residential areas comprising the Student hostels and Vice-chancellor’s lodge as well as other populated areas like the car park and student union building. The noise measurement was done in the morning and evenings of Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays over a period of 3 weeks in July 2019. The noise measurement was done with the aid of Smart Sensor Digital Sound Level meter (Model: AR824). The sampling points were geo-located using a hand-held receiver for Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Questionnaires were administered to members of the University community (staff and students) to determine their respective perception of campus noise on academic activities. Data (noise and survey) were subjected to statistical analysis. Spatial analysis of the noise levels includes surface interpolation (Krigging) to determine the spatial pattern of noise across the campus, particularly, the most tranquil and most chaotic locations. The results show noise pollution levels reaching 74.3 (db) and 73.0 (db) during weekdays at some locations on campus. The noise emission level at some locations within the University exceeded the World Health Organization and Federal Ministry of Environment of Nigeria’s permissible level of 55 db for residential areas. Generally, it was observed that the ambient noise from heavy duty generating with the student chattering put noise level above 35(db) to 55(db) recommended for educational institutions. It can be inferred from statistical analyses and spatial interpolations of recorded noise levels, that noise levels of many areas in FUNAAB exceed the recommended 40 db required for an institution of higher learning. The study however finds that staff and students have adjusted to the noise on campus. Lecturers have resorted to the use of public address systems in large classes while students go to serene locations for better assimilation when studying. The study recommends reduction of point-source noises such as replacing the diesel generators with solar power. Signage should be displayed at sensitive areas such as library to reduce unnecessary noise.

Keywords: Campus noise, Cognitive disturbance, Spatial variability, Tranquility maps, GIS, FUNAAB

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Analysis of Household Energy Use and CO2 Emission using Environmental Kuznets Curve

Maina Y. B., Egbedimame A. B. and Kyari B. G.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0223

ABSTRACT
This study examined the environmental Kuznet’s curve based on the household energy use and pollution of carbon dioxide in Nigeria as a means of identifying efficient energy for a sustainable environment. Secondary data sets obtained from National Bureau of Statistics on the General Household Survey (2010-11, 2012-13, 2015-16 and 2018-19) were utilized. The study employed descriptive statistics, Consumer Lifestyle Approach and the Econometric specification for income-pollution models. The result showed that the use of diesel and kerosene were declining over the years while Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), electricity and petrol recorded an increasing pattern. However, charcoal and fuelwood usage experienced some decline for the first three years of the survey and rose in 2019. The results also revealed that the total of 105674, 76329, 70006 and 47586 kg of carbon dioxide were emitted monthly based on the four data sets used respectively. With a total of 296064 and 303037 kg for rural and urban households respectively and on the average a household emits a total of 19 kg of carbon dioxide. With regards to the pollution-income relationship, the coefficients of income(y), (y2) and (y3) were all negative, although significant at 1% levels. Indicating that the Kuznets hypothesis was partially applicable to the Nigerian households, while educational level and sex were found to be negative but significant at 1% levels. On the contrary, the family size was positive and significant at 1% level but age of the household head was insignificant determinant of carbon dioxide emission. The paper recommended that the Nigeria government should improve electricity supply, LPG and the income of the households.

Keywords: Environmental Kuznets, Household, Energy Use, Pollution, Nigeria

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The Thickening Time of Ferrous Cement Slurry System in High-Pressure and High-Temperature Environment

Igbani S., Ogoni H. A. and Appah D.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0219

ABSTRACT
Experimentally, the aim of this research paper is to investigate the thickening time (TT) of different ferrous cement slurry systems in high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) environment. Objectively, the study collected eight (8) samples of groundwater from 8 different boreholes, as mix-water, from the study area, Kolo Creek. These mix-water samples were subjected to water chemistry analysis, based on the American Public Health Association (APHA) drinking water test methods; the results obtained from these tests were benchmarked with the standard values of World Health Organisation (WHO), and Nigeria Standard Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) standards. These results reveal that, in each of the tested mix-water samples, ferrous ion (Fe2+) concentration was higher (0.52 to 6.82mg/L); which is greater than 0.3mg/L, and this was the only chemical parameter that was in strong disagreement with the WHO’s and NSDWQ’s Drinking Water Quality standards. Subsequently, each of these ferrous mix-waters were used in the formulation of cement slurries at the water-to-cement ratio of 0.44 in batches; each of these formulated slurries were used, to test for the effects of ferrous ion concentration in mix-water on the TT performances of the slurries. These TT tests were performed using the Chandler model 7322 HPHT Consistometer. These tests were conducted based on the API Specification 10A methods of 1995. Generally, the results obtained reveal that, as the concentration of Fe2+ increases in the mix-water, the TT of the cement slurry accelerated in the HPHT environment. This means that the cement slurry set faster. Also, this set-fast behaviour of high ferrous ion concentration towards slurry suggested that, high concentration of ferrous ion induced the exothermic reaction of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) during the hydration of the ferrous cement slurry. Therefore, ferrous neat cement slurry is only suitable for cementing shallow oil-well, except retarding additives are added into the slurry.

Keywords: Thickening Time, Mix-Water, Oil-well Cement, Ferrous Ion, Cement Slurry, High-Pressure, and High-Temperature

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Application of GIS in Electricity Distribution: A Case Study of part of Ashamu Layout Kosobo, Oyo East Local Government Area, Oyo State Nigeria

Oseni A. E. and Durowoju A. S.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0106

ABSTRACT
Due to the natural limitations faced by the old system of keeping, planning and managing the distribution of electricity, a computerized system is developed for Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), on Ashamu Layout of Kosobo Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Data was acquired using south total station (NTS) and the data was downloaded using NTS.comp and project boundary was plotted with AutoCAD civil 3D, 1m Ikonos resolution satellite imagery was downloaded and geo-referenced with Arcgis10.1. Spatial features such as roads and buildings were vectorized. Electricity distribution and management was designed and created using relational database management system (rdbms) approach. The raster image was added as layer to ArcGIS 10.1 environments for geo-referencing and vectorization. The roads, buildings, electric poles were vectorized and a south total station was used to acquire co-ordinates of the electric poles and transformers to their position on the imagery, creating spatial database for the study area. The developed system was tested by carrying out spatial analysis and spatial search using ArcGIS 10.1. The results obtained were displayed in graphics and tables. It was established from the result that Geographic Information System (GIS) has the capacity as an effective tool for management of electricity distribution system.

Keywords: Electricity Distribution, GIS, Database, Management, Imagery

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Development of Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Rainfall Prediction within the Middle Niger River Basin

Ehiorobo J. O., Izinyon O. C. and Ilaboya R. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0231

ABSTRACT
Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship remains one of the mostly used tools in hydrology and water resources engineering, especially for planning, design and operations of water resource projects. IDF relationship can provide adequate information about the intensity of rainfall at different duration for various return periods. The focus of this research was to develop IDF curves for the prediction of rainfall intensity within the middle Niger River Basin (Lokoja and Ilorin) using annual maximum daily rainfall data. Forty (40) year’s annual maximum rainfall data ranging from 1974 to 2013 was employed for the study. To ascertain the data quality, selected preliminary analysis technique including; descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity and outlier detection test were employed. To compute the three hours rainfall intensity, the ratio of rainfall amount and duration was used while the popular Gumbel probability distribution model was employed to calculate the rainfall frequency factor. To assess the best fit model that can be employed to predict rainfall intensity for various return periods at ungauged locations, four empirical IDF equations, namely; Talbot, Bernard, Kimijima and Sherman equations were employed. The model with the least calculated sum of minimized root mean square error (RMSE) was adopted as the best fit empirical model. Results obtained revealed that the Talbot model was the best fit model for Ilorin and Lokoja with calculated sum of minimized error of 1.32170E-07 and 8.953636E-08. This model was thereafter employed to predict the rainfall intensity for different durations at 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100yrs return periods respectively.

Keywords: Rainfall intensity, Frequency factor, Gumbel probability distribution, Mean and standard deviation

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Physicochemical Characteristics of the Okomu Wetland, Edo State, Nigeria

Ogbeibu A. E. and Ehiorobo S. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0225

ABSTRACT
Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship remains one of the mostly used tools in hydrology and water resources engineering, especially for planning, design and operations of water resource projects. IDF relationship can provide adequate information about the intensity of rainfall at different duration for various return periods. The focus of this research was to develop IDF curves for the prediction of rainfall intensity within the middle Niger River Basin (Lokoja and Ilorin) using annual maximum daily rainfall data. Forty (40) year’s annual maximum rainfall data ranging from 1974 to 2013 was employed for the study. To ascertain the data quality, selected preliminary analysis technique including; descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity and outlier detection test were employed. To compute the three hours rainfall intensity, the ratio of rainfall amount and duration was used while the popular Gumbel probability distribution model was employed to calculate the rainfall frequency factor. To assess the best fit model that can be employed to predict rainfall intensity for various return periods at ungauged locations, four empirical IDF equations, namely; Talbot, Bernard, Kimijima and Sherman equations were employed. The model with the least calculated sum of minimized root mean square error (RMSE) was adopted as the best fit empirical model. Results obtained revealed that the Talbot model was the best fit model for Ilorin and Lokoja with calculated sum of minimized error of 1.32170E-07 and 8.953636E-08. This model was thereafter employed to predict the rainfall intensity for different durations at 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100yrs return periods respectively.

Keywords: Wetland, Okomu National Park, Physicochemical parameters, Pond, Stream, River, Water quality

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Anaerobic Digestion of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Waste: Effects of Inoculum on Biogas Production Rate

Eboibi B. E., Adiotomre K. O., Onobrudu F. and Osioh E.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0226

ABSTRACT
In this paper, cow manure fluid was used as inoculums to investigate biogas production rate from anaerobic digestion of cassava peel at mesophilic temperature (280C). The anaerobic experiment was conducted using six batch digesters (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) each of 20L capacity for 40-day hydraulic retention. Each digester, was loaded with 5kg of cassava peel (CP) and 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of inoculum to CP. Hashimoto model was used to obtain the digestion kinetic parameters. The results of the study showed that inoculums influenced the rate of biogas production, showing variations in biogas production, correlation coefficient (R2) and in first-order decay constant (k). The average cumulative biogas production was in the range of ~2358 to 4010ml/kgVS for 10% to 50% inoculum. The R2 and k for D1 was 0.959 and 0.359 D1 (without inoculum), 0.990 and 0.371 for D2 (10% inoculum) and 0.991 and 0.371 for D3 (20% inoculum), 0.951 and 0.356 for D4 (30% inoculum), 0.992 and 0.372 for D5 (40% inoculum), and 0.990 and 0.371 was obtained for D6 loaded with 50% inoculum. Despite variation in biogas yields from different inoculums, biogas production obtained from anaerobic digesters loaded with inoculums were still lower compared with that without inoculum.

Keywords: Biogas, Cassava waste, Inoculum, Bioenergy, Kinetics

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Human Perception on the Effects of Dust Storm on the Health of Residents’ of Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe State

Jimme M. A., Disa A. L. and Ngamdu M. B.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0129

ABSTRACT
Dust storms are among nature’s most violent and unpredictable phenomena. High winds lift dirt or sand particles into the air, unleashing a turbulent, suffocating cloud that reduces visibility to almost nothing in a matter of seconds and cause property damage, injuries, and deaths. Damaturu Metropolis has been experiencing dust storm most frequently more especially during the onset of the rainy season. The study examined the human perception on the effects of dust storm on the health of residents’ of Damaturu metropolis with the aim of identifying and examining the causes, frequency, effects of dust storm on human health and socio-economic life of resident and their coping strategies. A total of one hundred (100) copies of interview schedules were administered to residents of Damaturu metropolis. The result indicated that desertification and deforestation are the main cause of dust storm and the frequency of its occurrence is more often and it occurs most frequently in the second quarter of the year at the onset of the rainy season. Its duration of occurrence ranges from thirty minutes to an hour, although sometimes it varies. The identified health effects associated with dust storms include asthma, allergic reaction, injury and Road Traffic Accident (R.T.A). The socio-economic and livelihood of the community is equally affected during the dust storm episodes. The coping mechanisms adopted by residents during the dust storm, includes closing doors and windows and using face masks. The study recommended that residents should remain indoors, wear face masks, plant trees and cover crops, among others.

Keywords: Dust Storms, Sand Storm, Health, Damaturu

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Modelling and Forecasting of Ikpoba River Discharge in the Niger Delta Region using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

Egbiki S., Ehiorobo J. O. and Izinyon O. C.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0235

ABSTRACT
In this study, the discharge of Ikpoba River was modelled and forecasted using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The river daily discharge, temperature and precipitation data sets from year 1991 to 1995 were used. In applying the ANFIS, five models stages; model-1, model-2, model-3, model-4 and model-5 were created using MATLAB. Model-1 to 4 were created using only the river discharge data, while model-5 was created by incorporating temperature and precipitation to cater for the effect of climate change into model-4. Five performance evaluation criteria, coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error (MSE), modelling efficiency (E) and index of agreement (IOA) were used for comparative analysis. The results showed that though Model 1 to 4 were able to predict the river discharge accurately, model-5 (when the effect of climate change was incorporated) performed better than the other four models with only discharge data. The training phase in model-5 showed an over-estimation of 0.043% of the observed target output sets while an over-estimation of 0.044% was observed in the testing phase. These are within acceptable error tolerance of +/-10% for data validation. This information is useful for integrated water resources planning and management.

Keywords: Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy System, Forecasting, Performance Evaluation, Discharge

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Assessment of Water Quality of Okomu Wetland Using Water Quality Index

Ehiorobo S. I. and Ogbeibu A. E.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0224

ABSTRACT
The water quality of the Okomu Wetland was evaluated using the Water Quality Index (WQI) technique which provides a number that expresses overall water quality of a water body or water sample at a particular time. Sampling of physicochemical parameters spanned two years covering the wet and dry seasons and the water quality data were obtained from 10 sampling locations; Ponds 36, 52, 54, 61, 64, 90, 94, Arhakhuan Stream, Okomu River (Agekpukpu) and Okomu River (Iron bridge) all within the Okomu National Park. Parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Chlorine (Cl), Nitrate (NO3), Sulphate (SO4), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), (Iron) Fe, Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), and Nikel (Ni) were used to compute WQI and the values obtained for the wetland ranged between 34.36 and 167.28. The Index shows that pond 36, 52 and 54 are unfit for drinking with values between 103.86 and 167.28; ponds 61 and 64 are of the very poor quality category with WQI values of 95.19 and 92.44 respectively, Pond 90, pond 94, Arhakhuan Stream and Okomu River (Agekpukpu) are of poor quality and WQI values between and 53.58 and 73.15. Whereas, the Okomu River (Iron bridge) is within the good water quality (34.36) category. The Okomu River by Iron bridge is of good quality rating while other sampled points were of poor, very poor or unfit for drinking though these water bodies are mostly free from anthropogenic activities because of the conservative status of the study area. A major source of pollution within the wetland is surface runoff. The water quality of the wetland may not be suitable for man’s consumption especially pond water which are majorly impacted by runoff, yet very important for the survival and sustenance of the forest animals and plants. The water quality index (WQI) interprets physicochemical characteristics of water by providing a value which expresses the overall water quality and thus, reveals possible pollution problems of a water body. It turns complex water quality data into information that is easily understandable and usable by scientists, researchers and the general public.

Keywords: Water Quality Index, Ponds, Stream, River, Wetland, Physicochemical parameters

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Ductility and Seismic Suitability of Locally Sourced High Yield Rebars in Benin City

Nwankwo E. and Attama E

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0211

ABSTRACT
Ductility is the ability of a system to sustain large deformations beyond its yield point without breaking or failing. Eurocode 8 makes allowance for receipt of seismic forces using the damping capacity of ductile members. This allows for the absorption of energy and helps increase the amount of energy absorbed by ductile structures before failure. This paper investigates the maximum ductility locally sourced steel rebars in Benin City structure can sustain without damage by establishing parameters that influence ductility. Tensile tests were conducted for rebar sizes of 10 mm, 12 mm, and 16 mm diameters, which were sourced from three different vendors within Benin City, Nigeria. The strain-hardening ratio Stu/Sty, i.e. the ratio of tensile strength Stu to yield strength Sty, and the elongation at maximum tensile force Agt were investigated in order to determine plastic deformation capacity and the degree of ductility of these rebars. A numerical model – the modified Ramberg- Osgood and Rasmussen equations – was modified in order to predict the experimentally obtained ductility parameters of these locally sourced rebars. The model collaborates well with experiments and could be used to establish ductility parameters of local rebars. Also, ductility test results showed that strain hardening ratios and elongation were relatively low (Recommended strain hardening ratio of rebar for seismic design is 1.15) and this could result in reinforced concrete structures made with these rebar exhibiting moderate ductility, i.e. a moderate plastic deformation capacity which might not have sufficient energy absorbing capacity in events of large earthquakes.

Keywords: Ductility, Yield, Elongation, Strength, Seismic, Rebars

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Assessment of Lead (Pb) in Soil at Various Distances and Depths at Pb and Zn Mining Site in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Atikpo E. and Ihimekpen M. O.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.02.0222

ABSTRACT
Pb in soil at various distance and depths was assessed at Pb and Zn mining site in Ishiagu Ebonyi State, Nigeria to determine the furthest distance travelled so far and the concentration at the distance. Pb ion in sampled soils at depth 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm within pollution zones in 1 km x 1 km area of 100 m grid intervals were fitted with mathematical models for prediction using MATLAB. Pb ion change with distance was fitted into power model and linear polynomial models at distinct grid points. The models predictions showed decrease in Pb ion with distance. It revealed that the ion had travelled far into the soil with a furthest distance of 4760 cm but with no soil pollution signal because 64.54 mg/kg (concentration at 4760 cm) is less than 100 mg/kg specified as the maximum for soils. It showed a signal that the metal might threaten the ground water at some future date with an objectionable concentration above 0.01 mg/l specified for drinking water. Concentration at some intermediate distances is risk signal of food pollution through absorption of the metal by crops with root morphology and depth reaching these intermediate depths of objectionable concentration.

Keywords: Soils, Lead, Pollution Threat, Prediction

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