Physicochemical Characteristics of the Okomu Wetland, Edo State, Nigeria

Ogbeibu A. E.* and Ehiorobo S. I.

Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:

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 Vol. 4 No. 2  | October 2020 | Pages 398 – 410



Water quality assessment was carried out within the 202 km2 Okomu National Park located within the 1,082km2Okomu Forest Reserve between January 2017 and December 2018. Water sampling was carried in ten compartments of approximately 1.6km2 each, covering Ponds, Stream and River, based on easy accessibility. No such study has been carried out for the Okomu Wetlands in the past three decades. Sampling protocols, laboratory analysis and quality control/quality assurance measures followed standard procedures. All physicochemical parameters showed significant (P < 0.001) spatial variations. The maximum and minimum values obtained for physicochemical parameters of the Okomu Wetland are 23.6 and 38.0°C air temperature; 21.0 – 38°C water temperature; 0.15 – 1.02m water level; 16.7 – 150.7mg/l total dissolved Solids (TDS); 0.5 – 18.8mg/l total suspended Solids (TSS); 0.2 – 14.8mg/l turbidity; 40. 0 – 307.4µS/cm electrical conductivity (EC); 4.4 – 6.7 pH; 0.02 – 0.14mg/l salinity; 0.7 – 5.5mg/l dissolve oxygen (DO); 0.5 – 3.8mg/l biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); 1.5 – 120.2mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD); 23.8 – 593.6mg/l bicarbonates (HCO3); 69.9 – 245.3mg/l Chlorine (Cl); 0.02 – 0.59mg/l nitrite (NO2); 0.11 – 2.34mg/l nitrate (NO3); 0.04 – 2.11mg/l ammonium-nitrogen (NH4N); 0.05 – 2.96mg/l sulphate (SO4); 0.09 – 9.2mg/l phosphorus (P); 0.20 – 2.72mg/l sodium (Na), 0.03 – 1.32mg/l potassium (K); 0.88 – 5.88mg/l calcium (Ca); 0.13 – 3.1mg/l magnesium (Mg); 5.8 – 18.9mg/l iron (Fe); 0.04 – 1.1mg/l manganese (Mn); 0.02 – 0.09mg/l copper (Cu); 0.93 – 6.0mg/l zinc (Zn); 0.01 – 2.9mg/l lead (Pb); 0.01 – 0.18mg/l cadmium (Cd); 0.06 – 4.0mg/l chromium (Cr); 0.01 – 0.15mg/l nickel (Ni); 0.01 – 11mg/l vanadium (V). Air and water temperatures were mostly influenced by forest canopy cover. pH levels indicate that the water bodies within the forested wetland are slightly acidic. Higher DO values were recorded in the Arhakhuan Stream and Okomu River (Agekpukpu and Iron bridge) than in the temporary ponds. BOD levels of greater than 1mg/l were observed which is indicative of slight levels of organic pollution. Higher concentrations of TDS, TSS, turbidity, EC, Colour, HCO3, NH4N, NO2, NO3, P, Na, K, Ca Mg and heavy metals were recorded in the temporary ponds than in the Stream and River. Research on water bodies within wetlands should be carried out routinely in order to monitor changes in the water conditions that could occur overtime whether natural or anthropogenic. This becomes even more pertinent in the light of glaring impacts of climate change and increasing environmental modifications.

Keywords: Wetland, Okomu National Park, Physicochemical parameters, Pond, Stream, River, Water quality

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Cite this article as:

Ogbeibu A. E. and Ehiorobo S. I., 2020. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Okomu Wetland, Edo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 4(2), pp. 398-410.