Development of Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Rainfall Prediction within the Middle Niger River Basin

Ehiorobo J. O.*, Izinyon O. C. and Ilaboya R. I.

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

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 Vol. 4 No. 2  | October 2020 | Pages 382 – 397



Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship remains one of the mostly used tools in hydrology and water resources engineering, especially for planning, design and operations of water resource projects. IDF relationship can provide adequate information about the intensity of rainfall at different duration for various return periods. The focus of this research was to develop IDF curves for the prediction of rainfall intensity within the middle Niger River Basin (Lokoja and Ilorin) using annual maximum daily rainfall data. Forty (40) year’s annual maximum rainfall data ranging from 1974 to 2013 was employed for the study. To ascertain the data quality, selected preliminary analysis technique including; descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity and outlier detection test were employed. To compute the three hours rainfall intensity, the ratio of rainfall amount and duration was used while the popular Gumbel probability distribution model was employed to calculate the rainfall frequency factor. To assess the best fit model that can be employed to predict rainfall intensity for various return periods at ungauged locations, four empirical IDF equations, namely; Talbot, Bernard, Kimijima and Sherman equations were employed. The model with the least calculated sum of minimized root mean square error (RMSE) was adopted as the best fit empirical model. Results obtained revealed that the Talbot model was the best fit model for Ilorin and Lokoja with calculated sum of minimized error of 1.32170E-07 and 8.953636E-08. This model was thereafter employed to predict the rainfall intensity for different durations at 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100yrs return periods respectively.

Keywords: Rainfall intensity, Frequency factor, Gumbel probability distribution, Mean and standard deviation

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Cite this article as:

Ehiorobo J. O., Izinyon O. C. and Ilaboya R. I., 2020. Development of Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Rainfall Prediction within the Middle Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 4(2), pp. 382-397.