Vol. 4 No. 1 – March 2020


Assessment of Heavy Metals, Organic Carbon and Physico-Chemical Properties of Roadside Dust from a Nigerian School Campus

Olayinka O.D., Nwosu F.O., Ahmed S.O., Fabiyi S.F. and Ajala O.J.

University of Ilorin is one of the most populated Universities in Nigeria. Roadside dust was collected from the busiest roads of the university permanent site and level of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb), organic carbon and physico-chemical properties of the dust were assessed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Buck Scientific 210/211VGP) was used to analyse for heavy metals while appropriate standard methods were employed for the determination of organic carbon, pH, conductivity, particle density and bulk density of the roadside dust. The pH of dust from all roads was almost alkaline (7.2 – 7.6), particle density ranged from 1.60 – 2.14 gml-1, bulk density ranged from 1.03 – 1.62 gml-1, electrical conductivity ranged from 0.25 to 0.57µScm-1, organic carbon (OC) content of all roadside dust ranged from 0.9 % – 1.2 %. While Pb was obtained to be absent in all the roadside dust samples, it was observed that the abundance of other heavy metals at all the various sampling points and control followed the order Fe >>>Zn >> Cu > Cd. The average level of Fe in the control site was 2443.85 mg/kg which was very lower to that from other sites in the study. The results for the metal pollution index (MPI) show that all the roads were polluted with Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd. The levels of the metals showed a dependence on anthropogenic pollution such as vehicle density compared with the control site.

Keywords: Roadside Dust, Heavy Metals, Organic Carbon, University Campus

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Indoor Sound Pressure Level and Associated Physical Health Symptoms in Occupants within a Students’ Housing Neighbourhood in Southwest Nigeria

Orola B. A.

This study examined indoor sound pressure level in selected rooms within a students’ housing neighbourhood in Nigeria; assessed the self-reported physical health symptoms of the occupants; and analysed the relationships between the two. Sound pressure level was measured in each of the randomly selected 22 rooms at 15-minute intervals between 7hours and 19hours daily through a period of four weeks each during the peaks of both dry and wet seasons. The measurement was done with Data Loggers placed at work plane at the centre of the rooms. Purposive sampling was used to select all the occupants in the selected rooms as well as the two adjoining rooms to fill a questionnaire. This amounted to 696 respondents. The questionnaire, elicited information regarding what each respondent regarded as the most prominent source of noise, their gender, age and complexion, as well as their self-reported physical health status. This study found that a significant 79% of the respondents identified indoor noise sources as the prominent contributor to the acoustic condition in the rooms; that the mean measured sound pressure levels in each room layout ranged from 27.75 dB to 56.29 dB; and that the self-reported physical health symptoms with significantly high percentage of observation were cold, fatigue, and headache. Correlation analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between the sound pressure level in the rooms and the frequency of observance of cold, fatigue, and headache among the occupants. However, the relationship is more significant during the wet season, and more pronounced in female occupants than in male.

Keywords: Health symptoms, sound pressure level, self-reported health, students’ housing, indoor environmental quality.

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Effects of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) seeds on reproductive toxicity induced with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male Wistar rats

Uwagie-Ero E. A. and Nwaehujor C. O.

To examine the effects of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1) isolated from seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) on reproductive toxicity induced with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to Groups 1 to 3 (n = 12) as follows; A: control, B: CdCl2 only group, C: CdCl2+GB1. Cadmium toxicity was induced by including 2.5 mg/kg of CdCl2 into the rats’ drinking water and GB1 was dissolved in 0.5 % Tween20 and administered per os daily for 90 days. Four (4) animals from each group was humanely euthanized every 30 days. The testes were exteriorized and sperm cells collected from the caudal epididymis for analysis and histology.The result showed accumulation of Cadmium (Cd) in the testes of Wistar rats and a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in sperm count and sperm motility in Group B compared to Groups A and C. There was also a significant increase (p< 0.05) in immotile sperm count, headless sperm count and sluggish sperm count in Group B. Histology results revealed that CdCl2 significantly reduced the volume of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and resulted in reduced spermatogenesis observed, in reduced number of sperm counts and histology. Amelioration with GB1 restored the testicles to normal spermatogenic activities after 90 days of treatment.

Keywords: Garcinia kola seeds, Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), toxicity, Wistar rats, male reproduction.

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Land Use Conflicts and Rights to Farm in an Urbanizing Environment

Oyedele J. B., Alohan O. E. and Edionwe O.

This study examined agricultural land use conflicts and right to farm in an urbanizing environment. It also examined the implication of urbanization on farming activities. Three sub-urban communities currently undergoing urbanization were selected for the study. Primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and interviews. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed out of which 139 were retrieved and analysed. This represents 92.67% of the total questionnaires distributed. Data collected were analysed using simple frequency distribution table and graphs. The results revealed that land use is gradually shifting from agriculture to residential land use, forcing the farmers to face increase in land value due to high demand for land, difficulty in accessing land for agriculture and land speculation.

Keywords: Urbanization, Urbanizing environment, Land use, Land use conflict, right to farm.

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