Vol. 4 No. 1 – March 2020

(Pages 1 – 213 with Cover Page, List of Editorial Board Members, Table of Contents and Back Matter)

Articles


Assessment of Heavy Metals, Organic Carbon and Physico-Chemical Properties of Roadside Dust from a Nigerian School Campus

Olayinka O.D., Nwosu F.O., Ahmed S.O., Fabiyi S.F. and Ajala O.J.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0140

ABSTRACT
University of Ilorin is one of the most populated Universities in Nigeria. Roadside dust was collected from the busiest roads of the university permanent site and level of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb), organic carbon and physico-chemical properties of the dust were assessed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Buck Scientific 210/211VGP) was used to analyse for heavy metals while appropriate standard methods were employed for the determination of organic carbon, pH, conductivity, particle density and bulk density of the roadside dust. The pH of dust from all roads was almost alkaline (7.2 – 7.6), particle density ranged from 1.60 – 2.14 gml-1, bulk density ranged from 1.03 – 1.62 gml-1, electrical conductivity ranged from 0.25 to 0.57µScm-1, organic carbon (OC) content of all roadside dust ranged from 0.9 % – 1.2 %. While Pb was obtained to be absent in all the roadside dust samples, it was observed that the abundance of other heavy metals at all the various sampling points and control followed the order Fe >>>Zn >> Cu > Cd. The average level of Fe in the control site was 2443.85 mg/kg which was very lower to that from other sites in the study. The results for the metal pollution index (MPI) show that all the roads were polluted with Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd. The levels of the metals showed a dependence on anthropogenic pollution such as vehicle density compared with the control site.

Keywords: Roadside Dust, Heavy Metals, Organic Carbon, University Campus

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Indoor Sound Pressure Level and Associated Physical Health Symptoms in Occupants within a Students’ Housing Neighbourhood in Southwest Nigeria

Orola B. A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0142

ABSTRACT
This study examined indoor sound pressure level in selected rooms within a students’ housing neighbourhood in Nigeria; assessed the self-reported physical health symptoms of the occupants; and analysed the relationships between the two. Sound pressure level was measured in each of the randomly selected 22 rooms at 15-minute intervals between 7hours and 19hours daily through a period of four weeks each during the peaks of both dry and wet seasons. The measurement was done with Data Loggers placed at work plane at the centre of the rooms. Purposive sampling was used to select all the occupants in the selected rooms as well as the two adjoining rooms to fill a questionnaire. This amounted to 696 respondents. The questionnaire, elicited information regarding what each respondent regarded as the most prominent source of noise, their gender, age and complexion, as well as their self-reported physical health status. This study found that a significant 79% of the respondents identified indoor noise sources as the prominent contributor to the acoustic condition in the rooms; that the mean measured sound pressure levels in each room layout ranged from 27.75 dB to 56.29 dB; and that the self-reported physical health symptoms with significantly high percentage of observation were cold, fatigue, and headache. Correlation analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between the sound pressure level in the rooms and the frequency of observance of cold, fatigue, and headache among the occupants. However, the relationship is more significant during the wet season, and more pronounced in female occupants than in male.

Keywords: Health symptoms, sound pressure level, self-reported health, students’ housing, indoor environmental quality.

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Effects of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) seeds on reproductive toxicity induced with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male Wistar rats

Uwagie-Ero E. A. and Nwaehujor C. O.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0166

ABSTRACT
To examine the effects of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1) isolated from seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) on reproductive toxicity induced with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to Groups 1 to 3 (n = 12) as follows; A: control, B: CdCl2 only group, C: CdCl2+GB1. Cadmium toxicity was induced by including 2.5 mg/kg of CdCl2 into the rats’ drinking water and GB1 was dissolved in 0.5 % Tween20 and administered per os daily for 90 days. Four (4) animals from each group was humanely euthanized every 30 days. The testes were exteriorized and sperm cells collected from the caudal epididymis for analysis and histology.The result showed accumulation of Cadmium (Cd) in the testes of Wistar rats and a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in sperm count and sperm motility in Group B compared to Groups A and C. There was also a significant increase (p< 0.05) in immotile sperm count, headless sperm count and sluggish sperm count in Group B. Histology results revealed that CdCl2 significantly reduced the volume of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and resulted in reduced spermatogenesis observed, in reduced number of sperm counts and histology. Amelioration with GB1 restored the testicles to normal spermatogenic activities after 90 days of treatment.

Keywords: Garcinia kola seeds, Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol-1 (GB1), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), toxicity, Wistar rats, male reproduction.

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Land Use Conflicts and Rights to Farm in an Urbanizing Environment

Oyedele J. B., Alohan O. E. and Edionwe O.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0150

ABSTRACT
This study examined agricultural land use conflicts and right to farm in an urbanizing environment. It also examined the implication of urbanization on farming activities. Three sub-urban communities currently undergoing urbanization were selected for the study. Primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and interviews. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed out of which 139 were retrieved and analysed. This represents 92.67% of the total questionnaires distributed. Data collected were analysed using simple frequency distribution table and graphs. The results revealed that land use is gradually shifting from agriculture to residential land use, forcing the farmers to face increase in land value due to high demand for land, difficulty in accessing land for agriculture and land speculation.

Keywords: Urbanization, Urbanizing environment, Land use, Land use conflict, right to farm.

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Remote Sensing and GIS Application to Erosion Risk Mapping in Lagos

Makinde E.O and Oyebanji E.I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0081

ABSTRACT
Increased population, unhealthy agricultural practices, indiscriminate land clearing and illegal structures have led to an increase of erosion in Nigeria and Lagos State in particular. This research focused on identifying land use/land cover changes in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos State and estimating the actual erosion risk using Remote Sensing and Geography Information System. In addition, this research evaluated the perception of communities within the study area with the view to understanding the risk involved in erosion. Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was the classification method applied on the Landsat imageries (1986-2016) to identify the changes on the land use/land cover types. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the perception of communities within the study area and Revised Universal Soil Loss equation (RUSLE) model was used to estimate the actual erosion risk. The result showed that the sediment yield of the study area was estimated to be between 0 to 48ton/ha/yr. The estimated soil losses were higher in Eti-Osa West compared to other parts of Iru/Victoria Island, and Ikoyi/Obalende areas which recorded low losses. Land uses mostly affected by very high and severe erosion are the bare soils and the crop lands having about 3% to 4% respectively. It can be concluded that rainfall, lack of cover for the surface soil were the major causes of soil loss in the study area.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System, Risk Mapping, Soil Erosion, RUSLE, Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NiMet), Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), Landsat images.

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Determination of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Accumulation in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) in Automobile Waste Dumpsite at Ohiya Mechanic Village

Ogbonna P.C., Osim O.O. and Biose E.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0173

ABSTRACT
Human health challenges resulting from consumption of food contaminated by heavy metals necessitated the investigation of soil and cassava plants around automobile waste dumpsite at Ohiya mechanic village, Abia State, Nigeria. Soil and cassava samples collected randomly at the site were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr). The values of highest concentration of Cu and Pb in soil was recorded in 0-10 cm, Cr was obtained in 21-30 cm while Cd was in 11-20 cm soil depth. The concentration of Cd (0.11±0.00 to 0.26±0.00 mg/kg) in soil exceed maximum permitted level of 0.1 mg/kg (Cd) by FAO/WHO. The concentration of Pb (0.01±0.001 to 3.24±0.00 mg/kg) and Cd (0.07±0.00 to 2.08±0.00 mg/kg) in cassava plants exceed the permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg (Pb) and 0.2 mg/kg (Cd) set by FAO/WHO. The Pearson correlation analysis show very strong positive relationship between Cu and Cu (r=0.996) and Pb and Pb (r=0.986) while strong negative relationship exist between Cr and Cr (r= -0.686) and Cd and Cd (r= -0.981) in soil and plant. Based on our findings, the concentrations of Cd in soil vis-à-vis Pb and Cd in plants which exceed maximum permitted level set by Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/WHO will expose man and animals that relied on soil and cassava plants for food to serious health risks. Consequently, Abia State government should prevent farmers’ access to the site by fencing round the automobile waste dumpsite.

Keywords: Automobile waste, dumpsite, heavy metals, soil, cassava plants, Ohiya.

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Application of R-Squared (R2) in The Analysis of Estimated Water Encroachment into a Reservoir

Oloro O. J.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0155

ABSTRACT
Increased population, unhealthy agricultural practices, indiscriminate land clearing and illegal structures have led to an increase of erosion in Nigeria and Lagos State in particular. This research focused on identifying land use/land cover changes in Eti-Osa LGA of Lagos State and estimating the actual erosion risk using Remote Sensing and Geography Information System. In addition, this research evaluated the perception of communities within the study area with the view to understanding the risk involved in erosion. Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was the classification method applied on the Landsat imageries (1986-2016) to identify the changes on the land use/land cover types. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the perception of communities within the study area and Revised Universal Soil Loss equation (RUSLE) model was used to estimate the actual erosion risk. The result showed that the sediment yield of the study area was estimated to be between 0 to 48ton/ha/yr. The estimated soil losses were higher in Eti-Osa West compared to other parts of Iru/Victoria Island, and Ikoyi/Obalende areas which recorded low losses. Land uses mostly affected by very high and severe erosion are the bare soils and the crop lands having about 3% to 4% respectively. It can be concluded that rainfall, lack of cover for the surface soil were the major causes of soil loss in the study area.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System, Risk Mapping, Soil Erosion, RUSLE, Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NiMet), Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), Landsat images.

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Community Participation in Wildlife Management in Baturiya Sanctuary, Northwestern Nigeria

Karkarna M.Z. and Danjuma M.N.,

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0169

ABSTRACT
Human benefits from wildlife are apparently declining over decades as the extent and intensity of threat to protected areas continue. This study assessed nature of community participation in wildlife management in Baturiya Sanctuary with a view to providing information for active participation of communities in the management of this area. A total of five communities namely: Shinge (4km west), Illala (12km west), Kokiro (3km east), Zigobiya (7km east) and Abanaguwa (5km north) were purposively sampled based on their proximity to the sanctuary. Snowball sampling technique was used to select fifty-seven (57) participants for the survey. Questionnaire and Interview were conducted to elicit the knowledge and perspectives of participants on the role of community in wildlife management. Numerical values were analysed in percentage while chi-square was used to test the levels of participation among communities. Findings of this study indicate that only 18 of the 57 sampled participants are involved in wildlife management. It also shows that there is decrease and extinction of wildlife especially birds, primates and reptiles in the sanctuary. The study also found four categories of participants: active-voluntary, active-institutional, passive-voluntary and passive-institutional. It shows that 37.50% active and 62.50% are passive participants respectively. Benefits of community participation include control of poaching (43.85%) and control of trade in parts of animals (25%). Majority of the participants (83.33%) engage in wildlife management voluntarily based on perceived benefits derived from the sanctuary. Poor governance (43.85%) and weak community institutions (31.57%) are the main limitations to community participation in wildlife management. This study therefore recommended that community leaders and youth should be strengthened and officially recognized as stakeholders in wildlife management and governance of natural resources in Nigeria at large

Keywords: Sanctuary, biodiversity, migratory birds, Nigeria.

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Impact of Urbanizing Ovia-North East on the Quality of Groundwater using Water Quality Index

Rawlings A. and Ikediashi A. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0180

ABSTRACT
Due to increasing population and industrialization in urban areas, the environment has become so vulnerable as a result of unhygienic practise by the populace (particularly in developing country). Thus, making groundwater to be more vulnerable to pollutants from the environment. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from twelve different boreholes (six domestic boreholes and six bakery boreholes) in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas and assessed for their suitability in domestic and industrial purposes. These samples were collected between September and October, 2019 (peak of rainy season). The samples were analysed for fourteen physiochemical parameters, namely: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Chloride (Cl), Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4N), Total Hardness (TH), Temperature, Odour, Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd). All the laboratory analyses were conducted in accordance with the techniques described by American Public Health. Statistical analyses such as correlation matrix (Pearson’s Correlation) and water quality index (WQI) were used in this study. Results of physiochemical analysis revealed that of all the parameters examined, pH, Pb and Cd were not within acceptable limits. The correlation matrix indicated that TDS shows a highly positive correlation (0.99) between EC and NH4N respectively and also Temperature shows a highly negative correlation (0.80) between EC, TDS and NH4N respectively. The WQI indicated that the groundwater samples ranged from excellent to good indicating that the water is fit for drinking, domestic and industrial purpose. The physiochemical and correlation analyses revealed that the quality of groundwater in Ovia- North East LGA has slightly deteriorated and might be prone to contamination (by anthropogenic activities). Hence, it is recommended that there should be regular monitoring of the groundwater quality so as to sustain and improve the water quality and that the water should be treated before use.

Keywords: Groundwater, Pollution, Physiochemical parameter, Acceptable limit, Water Quality Index.

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Application of Tasselled-Cap Transformation to Soil Textural Mapping of a Semi-Arid Environment: A Case of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Main Campus, Sokoto, Nigeria

Eniolorunda N. B. and Jibrillah A. M.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0158

ABSTRACT
Information on soil attributes still largely relies on traditional methods of point sampling and subsequent laboratory test which are time and resource consuming. Thus, this study tested the applicability of Kauth-Thomas Tasseled-Cap Transformation (TCT) to soil textural mapping on the main campus of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto as a faster method. We hypothesized that the TCT-Brightness image had no relationship individually with soil particle size and Land use/ Land Cover (LUC). Landsat 8 of 22-03-2019 was preprocessed with QGIS and subjected to TCT in Idrisi Terrset to produce the TCT-Brightness image. Soil samples were collected at 91 points based on stratified random sampling at 0-15cm depth. Soil particle size was determined by Bouyoucos Hydrometer method. Simple linear regression analysis was used to model soil particle sizes from the TCT-Brightness image, while soil textural map was produced in SAGA. LUC of the area was mapped at Level III within the Google Earth Engine (GEE). Cross map-tabulation was carried out to test for the relationship between LUC and soil texture. Four textural classes were obtained namely sandy-clay-loam, loamy sand, sand and sandy-loam, with sand being dominant. Soil particle sizes were modeled at 99.85% accuracy, while soil textural mapping yielded 95% accuracy. Five LUC classes namely built-up area, wetland, upland forest, bare surface and riparian forest were mapped at 98.3% accuracy, with bare surface being dominant. A significant (p<0.01) relationship between LUC and soil texture was obtained at 0.85 Kappa Index of Agreement. The study concluded that the TCT is sufficient for predicting soil texture in a largely sandy semi-arid environment. A repeat of this study for the wet season was recommended.

Keywords: Soil Texture, Tasseled Cap Transformation, Soil Brightness Image, Landsat, Kappa.

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Fabrication of Copper Nano- Filter Membrane and its use in the Purification of Contaminated Water

Abdulwahab K. O., Otusote C. M. and Adams L. A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0177

ABSTRACT
Information on soil attributes still largely relies on traditional methods of point sampling and subsequent laboratory test which are time and resource consuming. Thus, this study tested the applicability of Kauth-Thomas Tasseled-Cap Transformation (TCT) to soil textural mapping on the main campus of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto as a faster method. We hypothesized that the TCT-Brightness image had no relationship individually with soil particle size and Land use/ Land Cover (LUC). Landsat 8 of 22-03-2019 was preprocessed with QGIS and subjected to TCT in Idrisi Terrset to produce the TCT-Brightness image. Soil samples were collected at 91 points based on stratified random sampling at 0-15cm depth. Soil particle size was determined by Bouyoucos Hydrometer method. Simple linear regression analysis was used to model soil particle sizes from the TCT-Brightness image, while soil textural map was produced in SAGA. LUC of the area was mapped at Level III within the Google Earth Engine (GEE). Cross map-tabulation was carried out to test for the relationship between LUC and soil texture. Four textural classes were obtained namely sandy-clay-loam, loamy sand, sand and sandy-loam, with sand being dominant. Soil particle sizes were modeled at 99.85% accuracy, while soil textural mapping yielded 95% accuracy. Five LUC classes namely built-up area, wetland, upland forest, bare surface and riparian forest were mapped at 98.3% accuracy, with bare surface being dominant. A significant (p<0.01) relationship between LUC and soil texture was obtained at 0.85 Kappa Index of Agreement. The study concluded that the TCT is sufficient for predicting soil texture in a largely sandy semi-arid environment. A repeat of this study for the wet season was recommended.

Keywords: Soil Texture, Tasseled Cap Transformation, Soil Brightness Image, Landsat, Kappa.

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Stormwater Runoff Treatment Using Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract as a Natural Coagulant

Bobor, L. O. and Aghedo, A. G.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0192

ABSTRACT
Uncontrolled stormwater runoff poses a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems due the presence of harmful pollutants. Effective treatment is important prior to discharge. This study investigated the performance of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant for the reduction of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater runoff. Stormwater samples were treated with Moringa oleifera seed extract solution at varied coagulant doses (0.5-10%), pH (3-10) and settling durations (20-60 minutes). The samples were analyzed before and after treatment to determine the coagulation efficiencies. There were improvements in stormwater quality, with up to 88%, 70% and 89% reduction in turbidity, COD and TSS levels achieved. Removal efficiencies increased with increase in coagulant dose and settling time. The results of the study indicate that Moringa oleifera can be used in the treatment of stormwater runoff for safe discharge into the aquatic environment.

Keywords: Stormwater runoff, Moringa oleifera, Coagulation, Turbidity, TSS, COD

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Perception of Stakeholders on Factors Responsible for Sports Facilities Defects in Selected Universities in South Western Nigeria

Oseghale G. E. and Ikpo J. I.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0187

ABSTRACT
The study assessed the perceptions of stakeholders on factors causing sports facilities defects in selected universities established between 1957 and 1962 in South-West Nigeria by examining the strength of the identified factors responsible for sports facilities’ defects in the selected universities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire which was administered on sports men and women and maintenance personnel. The study incorporated all the fifteen sports featured at the Nigeria University Games Association (NUGA) competitions. Three federal universities were purposively selected because these have facilities for all the fifteen sports and have hosted national and international sporting events. Data obtained were analysed using frequency distribution, percentages, mean response analysis and factor analysis. Using the mean response analysis, the result showed that the most severe factors responsible for sports facilities’ defects were design deficiencies (3.67), intensity of use (3.53), level of exposure to climatic condition (3.41), inadequate maintenance funding (3.19), vandalism (3.18), moisture (3.17) and inadequate cash flow analysis (3.16). The study recommends that users of the facilities should be carried along at the designs stage to minimize design errors and also adequate fund should be provided to maintenance unit to guarantee adequate maintenance of sports facilities for optimal performance.

Keywords: Defects, Factors, Facilities, Sports, Stakeholders, Universities

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Application of Geospatial Techniques and Logistic Regression Model for Urban Growth Analysis in Limbe, Cameroon

Adzandeh E. A., Alaigba, D. and Nkemasong C. N.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0193

ABSTRACT
Little is known about the nature of ecosystem loss, rampant changes in land use and land cover (LULC) and urban growth taking place in Limbe. The aim of this study is to analyze urban growth in Limbe, Cameroon from 1986-2019 using geospatial techniques and Logistic Regression Model (LRM). Landsat Thematic Mapper (1986), Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (2002) and Operational Land Imagery/Thermal Infrared Sensor (2019) were utilized in this study. The images were classified into land cover classes using supervised image classification algorithm in ENVI software. The classification output was subjected to LRM application to evaluate urban growth. Image difference of urban growth between 1986 and 2019 was calculated as dependent variable and the independent variables were produced by calculating the Euclidean distance and Buffer of built-up, waterbody, road and farmland as driving factor for urban growth. Future urban growth was determined for 2035 using the Land Change Modeler in IDRISI Selva. Classification overall accuracy for the three date were not less than 99%. LRM results show a good fit with relative operation characteristic of 0.8344 and Pseudo R2 of 0.21. Analysis of LULC shows that built-up increased from 3.5% (1986) to 17.6% (2019). An urban land expansion rate of about 23% was observed for 2035. Transition probability matrix revealed high probability (0.6345) of build-up to remaining build-up by 2035, while the probability for it changing to waterbody, bare land, farm land and vegetation are 0.1099, 0.0459, 0.1939 and 0.1221, respectively. This study successfully demonstrates the application of geo-spatial techniques and LRM for land use/land cover change detection and in understanding the urban growth dynamics. It also identifies the potential areas of future urban growth, which can help land use policy planners for making optimum decisions of land use planning and investment.

Keywords: Limbe, Logistic Regression Model, Spatial Analysis, Urban Growth.

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Effect of Local Binary Mixtures of Coarse Aggregates on the Compressive Properties of Concrete

Eze O. K. and Nwankwo E.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0172

ABSTRACT
Aggregates, though considered inert, are the primary components that define concrete’s thermal and elastic properties. It has been shown that factors such as maximum aggregate size, grading, shape, strength, water absorption capacity of coarse aggregates affect the properties of concrete. However, improper grading of coarse aggregate could have adverse effect on the amount of cement and water requirement for concrete production. Thus, impacting on the workability, pump-ability and durability of concrete. By maintaining a slump of 50 mm, the effect of varying sizes of coarse aggregates – 10 mm, 14 mm, 20 mm, and combination of these sizes – on the mechanical properties of concrete was obtained. Aggregates, which were used in this work, were sourced from quarries located in Auchi area of Edo State and had impact values between 16% and 28%. It was observed that the higher the coarse aggregate sizes the lower the water – cement (w/c) ratio required to obtain adequate workability. Also, the compressive strength of concrete was observed to be a function of the size of the coarse aggregates used in the concrete mix. It was observed that concrete made with equal proportions of 10 mm and 14 mm coarse aggregate had lower strengths compared to concrete made with 14 mm and 20 mm aggregates. This implies that combination of large sizes of aggregates produced stronger concrete when compared to combinations of smaller sizes of aggregates. It was also observed that density of concrete increased with increasing size of aggregates.

Keywords: Aggregate, grading, regression, compressive strength

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GIS based Flood Vulnerability Studies for Ife Central Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria

Ijaware V. A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0184

ABSTRACT
Flood has negatively affected Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. This work is aimed at mapping the vulnerability of the area to flood. Its objectives addressed the ranking of various natural and artificial factors causing flood, the determination and delineation of vulnerability to flood in the study area. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques, coordinates of flooded sites were acquired with Global Navigation Satellite System receiver; Landsat 8 data were acquired from the USGS website. To map land use, elevation data were acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission Digital Elevation Models, soil data was obtained from the Nigerian Geological Survey website, and rainfall data was acquired from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellit. Using Pairwise Comparison, the various weights of factors constituting flood in the area were acquired. Weighted Linear Combination and Analytical Hierarchical Process was used in producing the flood hazard and flood vulnerability maps. ArcGIS 10.2 Software was used in spatial and attribute data acquisition, processing, and information presentation. The Pairwise Comparison method adopted was validated and observed to have a consistency ration of 0.003. Results obtained show that 9.2% of the study area is highly prone to flood hazards 20.4% is prone to flood hazard and 44.3% is moderately prone to flood hazard. The method adopted correctly identifies all existing flood incidence areas within the flood- prone areas in the hazard map. The maps produced will serve as an effective tool to aid the prevention and mitigation of flood disaster in the flood-prone area.

Keywords: AHP, Flood Vulnerability, Remote Sensing, GIS, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission

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Effect of Alternate Wetting and Drying on some Properties of High Strength Concrete in Tropical Coastal Environments

Durojaye O. M. and Ogirigbo O. R.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0189

ABSTRACT
Concrete is one of the most used construction materials in the world, due to its good durability and fire resistance properties, versatility in forming various shapes, abundance of raw materials and low manufacturing and maintenance costs. High strength concrete, which is a type of concrete, finds its application in construction of high rise buildings, bridges, highways, etc. Its physical properties are greatly affected by the method of curing and the environment in which it is placed. This study investigated the effect on the compressive strength and some transport properties of high strength concrete subjected to alternate wetting and drying exposure, which may be due to intermittent rains, or rise and fall in tides of the sea, an exposure type that is commonly experienced in coastal areas. High strength concrete samples were prepared and subjected to two different curing regimes, one in which the concrete samples were cured continuously under water, and the other in which the concrete samples were subjected to 12-hr curing under water followed by 12-hr curing under ambient air. Various tests such as ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), compressive strength, water and chloride ingress tests were conducted on the cured concrete samples. The results obtained from the tests conducted, generally showed that the strength and transport properties of the high strength concrete was greatly affected by the alternate wetting and drying curing method. The effect was seen to be more adverse at the later ages than at the early ages.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Cyclic curing, Marine environment, Water ingress, Chloride ingress, Niger Delta

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Assessment of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) in air, elemental composition of granite and weather parameters at a quarry site in Ngwogwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Ogbonna P. C., Ukpai N. P. and Ubuoh E. A.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0199

ABSTRACT
The World Health Organization opined that suspended particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5, PM10) are affecting more people worldwide than any other pollutant. This study aimed to determine the status of particulate matter, elemental composition of granite and weather parameters via sampling and analysis of samples from different locations at quarry site in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The highest concentrations of Pb (2.00±0.05 mg/kg), Zn (6.85±0.06 mg/kg), Mn (94.21±0.13 mg/kg), Fe (3,461.65±3.61 mg/kg), Ca (5.41±0.01 %) and K (0.24±0.02 %) in different sizes of granites were recorded in dust particles. The order of abundance of the elemental composition in granites is: Fe > Mn > Zn > Ca > Mg > Pb > Co > As > Na > K. The highest temperature (45.88±0.53 °C) and relative humidity (49.05±0.21 %) was recorded close to the conveyor belt and walk way to pit, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 (69.00±1.41 µg/m3) and PM10 (2,829.50±12.02 µg/m3) were highest at the chippings deposition cum collection point. The concentration of PM2.5 is higher than the permissible limit set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration of PM10 is substantially above the permissible limit set by WHO. This suggest that quarry workers, and the wider community are subjected to prevailing environmental health threat. This emphasizes the need for rigorous implementation of existing environmental legislations established to protect the environment and public health.

Keywords: Quarrying, Granite, Particulate matter, Elemental composition, Weather, Ngwogwo

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Improving the cultural and historical tourism resources for sustainable development in Ondo State – A survey of Idanre Hills and resort centre, Idanre

Ikusemiju T. M. and Osinubi O. B.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0182

ABSTRACT
It has been observed that necessary attention has not been given to Idanre hills and resort centre as tourists’ attraction and its sustainability is being threatened. Thus, this paper revealed that many studies have been carried out on Idanre hills and resort centre but had only focused on its beautifications, geo – tourism potentials, landscape management, maintenance and tourists’ patronage pattern. Hence, the objectives of this study revealed possible strategies of making the cultural and historical tourism attraction of Idanre hills and resort centre sustainable for both this generation and the future generation and how these strategies can specifically be of economic and social benefits to the residents of Idanre community for sustainable livelihood. The study adopted oral interview, personal observation and administration of questionnaire for data collection of which 200 questionnaires were administered and 188 were returned representing 94.00%. Meanwhile, the questionnaires were presented and analyzed with the use of simple percentage method while percentage point of t – test distribution (One – tailed) analysis was adopted in validation of the hypothesis. The result indicated that t (calculated) was 0.13 and was greater than t (tabulated) of -2.92; thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted, which states that there are promising economic and social benefits of specifically developing and sustaining the cultural and historical tourism resources of Idanre hills and resort centre. The study concluded that if Ondo State Government and relevant tourism stakeholders should put the necessary strategies in making the cultural and historical tourism resources of Idanre hills and resort a haven in place; its development will have specific economic and social benefits such as economic stability and social integration etc on the residents of Idanre community and Ondo State at large by stimulating its local economy both directly and indirectly through multiplier effects.

Keywords: Cultural, Historical, Economy, Social, Sustainable development and Tourism Resources

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The Contributing Effects of Human Activities to Flooding in Ota, Ogun State

Oseni A. E. and Bamidele E. T.

https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2020.01.0195

ABSTRACT
Flood is considered to be a major natural disaster occurrence that affects human existence and the environment in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to analyze the flood-prone areas and determine their spatial locations using GPS and also determine the causes of flooding in the study area through questionnaires. To achieve this, primary source data like fieldwork was used and secondary source data like administration of questionnaires was also used. A Survey of 120 randomly sampled respondents was conducted in different flood-prone locations and 100 responded. The data obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed for the determination of the flood-prone areas in Ota, Ogun State. The result reveals that human activities like the dumping of refuse in drainage, bad road network, lack of proper drainage is majorly responsible for the areas to be at risk of flood prone. It was recommended that the government should create public awareness and sensitization campaigns should be embarked on to prevent the occurrence of this hazardous event in the future.

Keywords: Flood, GPS, Data, Drainage, Refuse

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