Impact of Urbanizing Ovia-North East on the Quality of Groundwater using Water Quality Index

Rawlings, A. ⃰ and Ikediashi, A. I.

1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

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 Vol. 4 No. 1  | March 2020 | Pages 87 – 96



Due to increasing population and industrialization in urban areas, the environment has become so vulnerable as a result of unhygienic practise by the populace (particularly in developing country). Thus, making groundwater to be more vulnerable to pollutants from the environment. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from twelve different boreholes (six domestic boreholes and six bakery boreholes) in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas and assessed for their suitability in domestic and industrial purposes. These samples were collected between September and October, 2019 (peak of rainy season). The samples were analysed for fourteen physiochemical parameters, namely: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Chloride (Cl), Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4N), Total Hardness (TH), Temperature, Odour, Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd). All the laboratory analyses were conducted in accordance with the techniques described by American Public Health. Statistical analyses such as correlation matrix (Pearson’s Correlation) and water quality index (WQI) were used in this study. Results of physiochemical analysis revealed that of all the parameters examined, pH, Pb and Cd were not within acceptable limits. The correlation matrix indicated that TDS shows a highly positive correlation (0.99) between EC and NH4N respectively and also Temperature shows a highly negative correlation (0.80) between EC, TDS and NH4N respectively. The WQI indicated that the groundwater samples ranged from excellent to good indicating that the water is fit for drinking, domestic and industrial purpose. The physiochemical and correlation analyses revealed that the quality of groundwater in Ovia- North East LGA has slightly deteriorated and might be prone to contamination (by anthropogenic activities). Hence, it is recommended that there should be regular monitoring of the groundwater quality so as to sustain and improve the water quality and that the water should be treated before use.

Keywords: Groundwater, Pollution, Physiochemical parameter, Acceptable limit, Water Quality Index

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Cite this article as:

Rawlings A. and Ikediashi A. I., 2020. Impact of Urbanizing Ovia-North East on the Quality of Groundwater using Water Quality Index. Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 4(1), pp. 87-96.