Vol. 3 No. 2 – October 2019


Spatial pattern of Land Surface Temperature over Umuahia North and Bende LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

Uchendu U. I, Kanu C., Kanu K. C. and Mpamah C. I.


This study evaluated the Spatial pattern of Land Surface Temperature (LST) over Umuahia North (Urban Area) and Bende LGA (Rural Area), Abia State, Southeast Nigeria. LANDSAT Imagery spanning Row 056 and Path 188, with 30m spatial resolution was captured on the 17th of May, 2018. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using a thermometer and multi-purpose Hydro-20 – 100 % model. Eight measurements were taken for each parameter at an interval of 8 hours at an elevation of 1.5m above the ground. Coordinates and elevation of the points were captured using a Garmin Handheld GPS. Data obtained were imported in compatible formats with ArcGIS 10.5 and the values for the un-sampled locations within the study area was determined through the interpolation of the collected data. A subset covering the study area was extracted for bands 1,2,3,4 and 5. Bands 1, 2 and 3 which are visible bands were used in generating a true colour composite image of the study area; the bands 4 and 5 which are not visible bands were used for the NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index). Result showed that Bende LGA had a vegetal cover of 45,741.26hectares out of a total of 60,152.76 hectares while Umuahia North had 19,689.09 hectares of vegetal cover out of a total of 24,459.75 hectares. Umuahia North had an average daily temperature of 31.309̊ C while Bende had 27.405̊ C. The average relative humidity in Bende LGA was 82.37% while Umuahia North was 67.274%. In conclusion, the study showed the existence of heat islands in the urban areas in Umuahia North LGA which was characterized by higher temperature but lower relative humidity. The heat island could be attributed to the gradual loss of vegetation cover and the increase in built-up environments in Umuahia North LGA.

Keywords: Land uses, soil depth, soil physical and chemical properties, watershed

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Impact of Land Use Types and Soil Depths on the Distribution of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Soils of Aboy Gara Watershed, at Gidan District, North Wollo Zone, Ethiopia

Gebeyaw, T. Y.


The study was conducted at the degraded land soils of the Abuhoy Gara Catchment, which is located in the Gidan District of North Wello Zone, Ethiopia to determine the impact of land use type and soil depth on the distribution of soil physical and chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from representative locations with four replications at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) of cultivated, grazing and bush land use types. One hundred eighty soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm each in a radial sampling scheme using an auger. Totally, twelve composite soil samples were collected using flexible grid survey method of 1:30,000 scales. The collected samples were air-dried, homogenized and sieved to pass a 2 mm mesh sieve for the standard physical and chemical analyses. Results showed that the soil physical and chemical properties were significantly affected by the interaction of land uses and soil depths. Silt content decreases while clay content increases across depth from surface to subsurface soils. The lowest pH-H2O was registered at the subsurface soils of the grazing lands, while the highest was recorded at the surface soils of the bush land. The interaction effect of land use by soil depth on the variability of soil organic matter was significantly higher at surface layer of the grazing land and lower at surface layer of cultivated land. Similarly, soil total nitrogen was highest in surface layer of the grazing land, while it was lowest in subsurface layer of the bush land. Exchangeable bases were highest in surface soils of the bush land and lowest in the surface soils of cultivated land. The contents of both exchangeable bases were decreasing with soil depth in all land uses except the bush land. Significant difference in cation exchange capacity contents was observed as highest in surface soil layer of the bush land and lowest in surface soil layer of the cultivated land. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the interaction of land use with soil depth showed negative effects especially disturbance of soil nutrient status on cultivated land in surface soils. In general, the spatial variability of soil properties indicates the soil conditions were strongly affected by inappropriate land use and soil management practices including soil depth. Therefore, reducing intensity of cultivation, adopting integrated soil fertility management and application of organic fertilizers could maintain the existing soil condition and replenish degraded soil properties.

Keywords: Land uses, soil depth, soil physical and chemical properties, watershed

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Implementation of Condition Equation Model in Geodetic Observation: A Case Study of Circular Reservoir Structure

Oladosu, S. O., Okonofua, S. E. and Ehigiator-Irughe, R.


In engineering projects involving the construction of above-ground storage tank big enough to retain and/or accommodate large quantities of petroleum products such as crude oil and condensate, mathematical reduction of obtained field data using condition equation method is always appropriate for an onward monitoring of those structures. This paper demonstrates how condition equation method can be used to adjust geodetic surveying measurements in relation to above-ground storage tank. Accuracy is in the order of σa = 5.66e-4 and σb = 1.113e-3 while σsmax and σsmin are 0.0522 and -0.0511 respectively. The results obtained revealed that the method can be satisfactorily implemented for above-ground circular reservoir storage tank structural modelling and monitoring for a similar scenario.

Keywords: Crude oil, Condition equation, Observation, Storage tank

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Finite Element Application in Reservoir Deformation analysis (Part 1)

Ehigiator-Irughe, R.


Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical technique for solving engineering problem and mathematical physics, useful problems with complicated geometries, loading, and material properties where analytical solutions may not be obtained. Some of the complicated problems involving load is a cylindrical reservoir structure where crude oil is stored in a tank farm. This paper demonstrates the use of Finite Element Analysis in above surface cylindrical reservoir engineering structure. The reservoir which has sixteen (16) monitoring station was monitored using reflectorless Total station. This paper is a pilot model and it is hoped to be developed further in two more phases to cover the entire reservoir under study. Only two studs in the North East and South East directions were selected to test the FEM forming a triangular shade (Truss) with three elements. The 2-D horizontal displacement was found to be 0.02 mm, while the vertical displacement was found to be -0.03 mm.

Keywords: Crude oil, Finite element, Reservoir, Stiffness matrix, Strain and stress analysis

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Analysis of Impact of Exposures and Hydrological Modelling of Flood Peak Zones in Adamawa Catchment, Nigeria

Nwilo P. C., Olayinka N. D. and Adzandeh A. E.


During the wet season, the Benue River overflows its banks and sometimes, extreme floods also occur in Adamawa catchment. Intensification of agriculture in some areas and urban growth in other areas has exposed a large population to flood risk. Little is known about localities or areas liable to flood at various peak flows and how land use and soil permeability affects the severity of flood in Adamawa catchment. This study seeks to analyse the exposures of land use/land cover and soil permeability to flood and model flood peak zones for three flow rates (2 years, 5 years and 10 years) using geospatial techniques and HEC-RAS model. Results of 2 years flood show that at least eight localities in the study area are highly prone to flood. This means that the probability of a flood of this calibre to occur and affect those localities in a given year is 50%. The number of localities prone to flood increases for Annual Exceedance Probability of 20% and 10%. The probability of 10% flood to occur and affect those localities in a given year is relatively low compared to both the 2yr and 5yr flood. Modelling results generated a curve number grid map which shows the permeability levels within the study area. Areas with more infiltration capacity recorded 50% (very high) and 20% (high). Moderate permeability score 16%. Very low and low levels account for 7.6% and 5.2% respectively. The implication is that 70% of the total area experience reduced surface runoff whereas 12.9% are more prone to water logging.

Keywords: Adamawa catchment, flood peak zones, Geospatial techniques, HEC-RAS model, land use/land cover, soil permeability to flood

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The Impacts of Climate Change on Nigerian Ecosystems: A Review

Ikumbur B. and Iornumbe S.


Climate change is the single biggest environmental issue facing the world today. It has become a great challenge to our generation and its impact is felt in almost every society in the world. Nigeria is one of the most vulnerable countries in Africa. Nigeria as a developing nation with a population of about 200 million people is likely to be adversely impacted by climate change due to its vulnerability and low coping capabilities. Climate change is evidently linked to human actions, and in particular from the burning of fossil fuels and changes in global patterns of land use. The impacts of human activities, as well as those of natural phenomena on global warming, climate change, and the environment, were presented and discussed. Various manifestations of its impact are evident in Nigeria, which includes temperature rise, increase in draught, and scarcity of food instigated by irregularities in rainfall, over flooding, and so on. This paper examines the concepts of global warming and climate change; its impact on the Nigeria ecosystems. It highlights the climate change-related risks and hazards the nation could face if best practices are not employed to prevent and mitigate its impact. Two sets of measures have been advocated for confronting climate change, these are mitigation and adaptation measures. The review explores possible adaptation strategies that are required to respond to the climatic variations and suggests ways that these adaptation strategies can be implemented.

Keywords: Climate change, Impact, ecosystems, global warming, mitigation, adaptation, greenhouse effects

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Macroinvertebrates’ Pollution Tolerance Index in Calabar River, Cross River State, Nigeria

Bate G.B. and Sam–Uket N.O.


A study was undertaken to determine the macroinvertebrates pollution tolerance index (PTI) in Calabar River, Cross River state, Nigeria. Five sampling stations were chosen along the river course: Ikot Okon Abasi, Tinapa, Unicem, Marina resort and Nsidung beach which were labeled stations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Physico-chemical parameters; surface water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured using their respective meters while macroinvertebrates were sampled using a Van Veen grab, stained with Rose Bengal solution and identified under microscope. Macroinvertebrates pollution tolerance index was obtained using online software designed by Northern Kentucky Univeristy and Leaf Pack Network Biotic and Water Quality Calculator. The results obtained for physicochemical parameters showed the highest temperature as 29.90C in station five while the lowest was 26.40C in station one. pH was highest (6.60) in station five and lowest (5.52) in station one. DO was highest (4.4mg/L) in station four and lowest (3.0 mg/L) in station five while BOD was highest (3.2 mg/L) in station three and lowest (0.3 mg/L) in station one. An average total of 5366 macroinvertebrate individuals were encountered belonging to nine families and eleven species. Tubificidae had the lowest occurrence with 18 individuals which made up 0.3% of the total macroinvertebrates while Penaeidae had the highest occurrence with 2,455 individuals constituting 45.8% of the total count. Pollution tolerance index was highest (21) in station five and lowest (9) in station four with the water quality being generally poor. Hence, it is suggested that anthropogenic activities should be regulated and continuous monitoring of the river course should be carried out.

Keywords: Macro-invertebrates, Pollution tolerance index, Calabar River, Physicochemical parameters, Sensitivity factor, Abundance code.

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Solid Waste Management Practice and Challenges in Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

Saleh A. and Ahmed A. 


This paper presents an overview of the current solid waste management practices in Gashua town and provides a brief discussion on future challenges. Gashua town the headquarters of Bade Local Government Area since 1949. Since then the population has mainly due to the influx of people and its strategic location along the axial route to significant towns in the state. Wastes are generated mainly from residential, commercial and institutional land uses. Waste collection sites are strategically situated as identified by the agency and designated as high waste generating points, metal waste bins and constructed waste bunkers. The contents of these bins are finally disposed of at a location 6kilometres away from the generating points. Spatial data on waste distribution was collected using a global positioning system (GPS). The data was manipulated and processed using a Geographic information system (GIS) to produce the waste distribution map. Findings revealed that the existing solid waste management system is inefficient as the present practice relies on monthly collection and disposal of waste using an open dumpsite.

Keywords: Practice and Challenges, Solid Waste Management, Gashua, GIS, GPS.

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Subsurface Structural Mapping over Koton Karifi and Adjoining Areas, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria, using High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Data

Ikumbur E.B., Ogah V.E.and Akiishi M.


In this current work, we aim to delineate the subsurface structural trends, determine the depth to basement surface, and provide an illustrative 3D model for its subsurface structure. Four digitized aeromagnetic maps were acquired from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency, Abuja. The total field aeromagnetic anomalies over Koton Karifi and adjoining areas have been evaluated. In order to map the subsurface structures and estimate the depth to basement surface the spectral analysis method was applied. To achieve such goals, a detailed analysis of the aeromagnetic data for the study area was performed. 2D interpretation was carried out for the aeromagnetic data. The processes used include contouring of the Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) data, separation of regional and residual anomalies, structural detection methods such as analytic signal, vertical derivatives, and magnetic lineament mapping were used to map the contacts and faults within the study area. The first vertical derivative and the magnetic lineament maps show major geologic lineaments trending in East-West with minor ones trending Northeast-Southwest. In the south-eastern part of the study area, there is a dome-shaped linear feature. The result obtained using the spectral analysis method reveals two source depth models. The depths to deeper magnetic sources range from 2.81 km to 3.24 km with an average depth of 2.90 km. The deeper magnetic source bodies are identified with the magnetic basement. The shallower magnetic sources which range from 0.45 km to 1.81 km with an average depth of 1.13 km could be attributed to near surface magnetic sources which are magnetic rocks that intruded into the sedimentary formations or magnetised bodies within the sedimentary cover. Based on the sedimentary thickness range of 0.45 to 3.24 km, there is an indication that the possibility of hydrocarbon generation in the study area is feasible.

Keywords: Spectral analysis, aeromagnetic anomalies, analytic signal, vertical derivative, depths-to-basement, subsurface structures.

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Mapping the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Urban Land and Vegetation in Osun State, Nigeria

Abiodun, O.E. and Akinola, D.J.


Urban expansion along with other changes in land use and land cover is a global phenomenon and most parts of Western Nigeria have experienced tremendous changes in recent past. Osun state, located in Western Nigeria, was originally made up of mostly traditional farming communities. These communities have witnessed rapid urbanisation in the last few decades and most of the communities previously known to be farming communities have transformed to modern well-known cities. This project examines the use of Remote Sensing in mapping of Land Use Land Cover in Osun state over a period of 30 years (1986 to 2016) using Landsat (MSS, TM, and ETM+) images. The aim of this study is to produce a land use/land cover map of Osun state at three epochs in order to detect the changes that have taken place particularly in the built up and Vegetation areas. Landsat Images of Osun state in 1986, 2006 and 2016 were processed into five land use classes namely: Water body, Vegetation, Wetland, Built-up and Bare land. Total area of land use in each class were determined along with percentage change area, Land Consumption Rate and Land Absorption Coefficients. The result of the work shows that built-up area changed from 20.52% in 1986 to 30.71% in 2006 and then 34.45% in 2016. Land Consumption rate was 0.068 in 2016 which is indication of highly compacted living environment. The minimum Land Absorption Coefficient observed was 0.027 in between 2006 and 2016, which indicates that land is acquired for built-up development at very high rate. The resultant effect of these observed changes was a reduction of the vegetation class from 35.82% in 1986 to 31.14% in 2006 and then 23.83% in 2016. The results in this study may influence new land policy that will enhance sustainable use of land in Osun state.

Keywords: Land Use, Epoch, Changes, Vegetation, Environment.

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Studies on the effect of Cold Plastic Deformation and Heat Treatment on the Microstructural Arrangement and Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

Obayi C.S., Nwobodo J.C., Neife S.I. and Daniel-Mkpume C.C.


Mild steel is the most extensively used carbon steel for numerous industrial applications, where it is exposed to various service environments containing acids, bases and salt solutions. From industrial point of view, plastic deformation and heat treatment are among the essential manufacturing steps in mild steel processing and these steps can implicate its corrosion behaviour. This work investigated the effect of cold plastic deformation and subsequent high temperature heat treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of mild steel in two different concentrations (0.5M and 1.0M) of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), using the weight loss method. Mild steel samples were cold pressed to thickness reduction of 20%, 40% and 50% and subsequently heat treated at 700oC and 900°C and then air-cooled. The test duration lasted for 25 days and the weight loss measurements were taken at intervals of 5 days. It was observed that corrosion rates of the samples were generally higher in the 1.0M than in 0.5M acid solution. The as-received and heat-treated mild steel samples exhibited higher corrosion rates than the cold-pressed and heat-treated samples. The results indicated strongly that cold working accompanied by heat treatment improves corrosion resistance of mild steel in acidic media.

Keywords: Microstructure, corrosion behaviour, plastic deformation, heat treatment, mild steel, acidic media.

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Development of Asbestos-free Brake Pads Using Bamboo Leaves

Adekunle N. O., Oladejo K. A., Kuye S. I. and Aikulola A. D.


Asbestos-based brake pads are not desirable due to the carcinogenic nature of asbestos. Organic asbestos-free brake automotive brake pad produced from bamboo leaves was evaluated in this study. Ground bamboo leaves were sieved into sieve grades of 100, 200, and 350 μm. The sieved bamboo leaves particles were then combined with 15 % steel dust, 10% graphite, 20% resin, Silicon Carbide varied five (5) times between 35-55 % and 0-20% respectively for each sieve grade to make brake pads of different ratios. The mechanical properties (hardness, compressive strength, density, porosity, wear rate, and flame resistance) of the produced samples were investigated. The results showed that the finer the particle size of the bamboo leaves, the better the mechanical properties of the produced samples. The results of this work when compared with those of the commercial (asbestos based) brake pad showed they were in close agreement except for the wear rate and porosity property. Therefore, bamboo leaves could be used in the production of asbestos free brake pads if the wear rate and porosity properties of the produced samples could be improved.

Keywords: Bamboo leaves, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, hardness, porosity, swell, wear.

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Strength and Workability Assessment of Concrete Produced by Partial Replacement of Cement with Waste Clay Bricks

Nwankwo E. and John A. T.


The use of waste clay bricks—which are abundant in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria – as supplementary cementitious material, would enable the construction industry utilize thousands of tons of brick blocks that would have ended up as waste or landfill materials. This paper establishes the pozzolanic properties of these waste clay bricks in terms of strength and workability. Waste clay brick powders are introduced as partial replacement for cement in this research. All tests were done in accordance with relevant British Standards. It was observed that waste clay brick, as an admixture, increases the workability and consistency of fresh concrete. Also, an 11 percent increase in compressive strength was observed with a 10 percent partial replacement of cement with waste clay brick powders. An equation is developed to capture the marginal increase in compressive strength of concrete produced with waste clay bricks, even after 28 days, for a 10% partial replacement of cement.

Keywords: Cement, Strength, Compression, Aggregate and Regression.

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Assessment of Hospital Wastes Management Practices in Lagos, Nigeria, using Two Health Care Centres as Case Studies

Alani R., Nwude D. and Adeniyi O.


Hospital wastes are highly infectious and can pose serious threat to human health. As the rate at which these wastes are generated is getting rapidly higher because of rapid urbanization and population growth, also the problem of disposal of these wastes is becoming more serious. It is of utmost importance that these wastes receive specialized treatment and management prior to their final disposal. Some of these wastes are mixed with household wastes, and the entire pile becomes a great public health hazard. Scavengers search through the piles for salable items, which they wash, repack and resell to the public, endangering their lives, and that of the entire public. Until recently, the management of medical wastes has received little attention despite their potential environmental hazards and public health risks. The collection, storage and disposal of medical wastes in Lagos are of growing environmental problem which needs immediate attention. This study was carried out to assess the current waste management practices in terms of type of wastes and quantities of waste generated in the healthcare facilities and the waste handling and disposal practices; also, to assess the level of awareness of health workers regarding hospital and clinical waste management. Two health care facilities in Lagos state were used as case studies. These hospitals are secondary facilities providing emergency, surgical, material and child health services. The methodology design was mainly of qualitative and involved physical observation, questionnaire administration, quantitative data collection procedures and manipulation, data analysis and interpretation. The findings showed that there was almost no knowledge of hospital waste management policy in the two health care facilities among the management staff, which seemed to confirm the premium on hospital wastes and their poor management.

Keywords: Lagos, Healthcare facilities, Hospital wastes, Waste management, Environmental health.

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Application of Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrogeophysics to Groundwater Exploration in Ogun State: A case study of OGD-Sparklight Estate

Epuh E.E., Jimoh N.O, Orji M.J. and Daramola O.E.


With the increase in population of Ogun state, the necessity to provide water to the populace has become a disturbing problem. In this study, a systematic approach to delineate the groundwater potential zones of the state was carried out using Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Hydrogeophysics as a tool. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) observations were also carried out in OGD Sparklight Estate to validate the results obtained from the integrated remote sensing and GIS observation and also determine the aquifer depth and possible pollution. The various thematic maps such as: soil map, land use/Land, geological map, rainfall map, lineaments map were obtained from enhanced satellite imagery and Slope map was generated from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission elevation model (SRTM DEM). These maps were overlaid in terms of weighed overlay method using Spatial Analysis tool in Arc GIS 10.4. During weighed overlay analysis, different ranks were given to each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights were assigned according to their influence. The groundwater potential map obtained from the study area showed that 47% of the total study area (Ogun state) lie within the “very high” potential zone, 15% of the area falls within the “high”, 30% lies within the of “moderate” zone, 5% lies within the “low “potential zone while “2% “ lies within the very low potential zone. The very high potential areas lie within the sedimentary zone in the southern part of the study area with high alluvial deposits, while the “very low” prospect zone lies majorly within the basement complex zone in the northern part of the study area. The boreholes susceptible to salt water intrusion were identified and the best drilling point with respect to depth were also determined.

Keywords: Groundwater, Remote sensing, GIS, Hydrogeophysics, VES

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Geometric and Dynamic Application of Satellite Geodesy in Environmental Mapping: A Conceptual Review

Hart L., Oba T. and Babalola A.


The impacts of satellite geodesy are being felt in all aspects of human development and environmental management. Its principal advantages stem from the global nature of its scope, the diversity of its sensors and the realtime capabilities to capture both visual, numerical and other data types for as long as desired and in all weather conditions. The capacity to pinpoint locations to high precision in fractions of a second and provide detailed geometric and graphical definitions of large swaths are proving useful for meeting the needs of a people desirous for automation in all aspects of human endeavours and for confronting the increasing challenges of sustainable development and environmental degradation. The most innovative facility provided by satellite geodesy is the technology of remote sensing which enables measurements of objects without physical contact for interpretative and mensurative analysis and mapping in static or kinematic modes. The aim of this paper is to showcase the contributions of satellite geodesy to sustainable environmental management its basic concepts and a brief exploration of some of its applications. The overall objective is to underscore its critical role in socio-economic development. The paper posits therefore that today’s rapidly changing environmental problems requiring static and realtime locational and graphical solutions can be solved through the facilities of satellite geodesy.

Keywords: Satellite, geodesy, dynamic, environment, geometric, technology.

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Residents’ Perception of Importance and Satisfaction with Infrastructure in Selected Public Housing Estates in Osun State, Nigeria

Oyedele J.B. and Oyesode M.F. 


This study examined residents’ level of satisfaction with the available infrastructure in Moremi, Oroki and Akoda Estates in Osun State, with a view to enhancing provision of infrastructure. Primary data was used for the study. Questionnaire was used to elicit information from the residents of the three selected public housing estates from the three senatorial districts in Osun State, each public housing estate representing one senatorial district. These public housing estates are under the portfolio of Osun State Property Development Corporation (OSPDC), Osogbo. The public estates include, Moremi Estate in Osun east senatorial district with 416 residential buildings, Oroki Estate in Osun central senatorial district with 816 residential buildings and Akoda estate in Osun West senatorial district with 46 residential buildings. These reflect a total of 1,278 residential buildings where systematic random sampling was adopted in selecting 20% of the residential buildings in the three selected public housing estates. A total of 255 residential buildings were selected, from which a resident was selected for questionnaire administration. The data collected were analyzed using relative importance index (RII) and Residents’ Satisfaction Index (RSI) analysis. The result showed that the average Residents’ Satisfaction Index (RSI) for the level of satisfaction derived from the infrastructure in the study area was 2.49 which showed that the residents were not satisfied. This study concluded that the residents were not deriving adequate satisfaction from the infrastructure available in the public housing estates. The study recommends that there is need to integrate residents’ preferred infrastructure into development policies: The residents’ preferred infrastructure identified in this study should be linked and integrated into the development policy designs for the estates.

Keywords: Infrastructure, public housing estates, residents, satisfaction.

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