CURRENT ISSUE   Vol. 5 No. 2 – October 2021


Perception of Residents on the Menace of Solid Waste on Environmental Quality in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
Agbebaku H. U.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0233


ABSTRACT
The paper examined the perception of residents on the menace of solid waste on environmental quality in Benin City, Edo State. There is a linkage between waste management and environmental quality as a filthy environment stimulates environmental ill-quality. The objective of study is to examine human perception and knowledge of residences of the menace of solid waste disposal on environmental quality. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from 25 selected wards and communities (comprising of 110 settlements) which constitutes the study area. These data were collected through systematic sampling technique from the selected streets and houses in each of Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha Local Government council areas. In each of the selected street, the 2nd, middle and 2nd to the last households were selected and administered with questionnaire. A total of 1,781 questionnaires were administered in the 768 polling unit stations acrossed the 3 local government areas of the study. Secondary data were sourced from published and documentary materials. Both the descriptive and statistical analyses were used for the study. The results show that there is variance in human perception and environmental quality does not vary significantly among residents of the 3 Local Government areas namely: Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha in Benin City. The study recommends that there should be a change of human attitudes and techniques on waste management and proffer better orientations of the menace of waste on environmental quality. There should be stiff measures of enforcement on residences while Sanitary Health Officers needs to intensify drives on sanitation and crammed down on offenders and environmental waste managers of the danger of indiscriminate dumps of waste anywhere and anyhow in the City of Benin. Finally, there should be improved waste management mechanism, routine fumigation and remediation been carried out on regular bases on the components of the environment as this will help to curb the menace of ill-managed waste disposal in Benin City.

Keywords: Environmental Quality, Menace, Perception, Residents, Solid Waste and Benin City

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An Assessment of the Relevance of Mapping and Sampling of Land-Use Types on Groundwater Quality in Apapa Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria
Agbebaku H. U.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0234


ABSTRACT
The paper examined the assessment of the relevance of mapping and sampling of land-use types; residential, commercial and industrial on groundwater quality in the Apapa Local Government area of Lagos. Mapping of an area provides information, delineation, features and interpretation about an area while sampling revealed detailed analyses about a-cross-sections of the problem identified procedures and proper solutions. There exists a correlation between mapping and sampling of groundwater quality of the land use types in Apapa. The objective of the study was to examine the relevance of mapping and sampling on its effects on groundwater quality of the 3 most land-use types in Apapa. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from mapping of the aerial and ground features of the study area and collection of water samples from 30 hand-dug wells. These samples were analysed in the laboratory to ascertain the states of physical and chemical parameters of the 30 sampled points. The techniques of field studies and analyses of mapping and laboratory experimentation of water samples were used for the study. The results show that mapping of the aerial extent and ground features is relevant to sampling collection because mapping is essentials and provides a fulcrum for physical and human features to be examines where samples of an area or events is to be made. The study recommended that at regular intervals, mapping of an area extent and ground features of sampling points of water sources should be done and made available to examine water quality as recommended by WHO, since flow lines of ground water movement convey pollutants which inferably determine the contamination of water sources. This paper calls for further research of mapping and sampling in other major land use types in other Local Government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Assessment, Groundwater Quality, Land-Use Mapping, Sampling, Relevance and Apapa, Lagos

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Designing a Spectrum Allocation Chart for Nigeria
Bello N. and Edeko F. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0277


ABSTRACT
The regulation of the radio spectrum today by government agencies addresses the issue of interference between radio stations by allocating, allotting and registering bands of radio-frequencies. The framework of management is done at the international, regional and national level. With this paper, we present a study of the radio spectrum allocation policies in some leading countries and Nigeria. However, narrowing the study down to the detailed design of spectrum allocation charts. The study used the information in the national table of frequency allocation (NTFA) to design the spectrum allocation chart of Nigeria with Photoshop application. The spectrum allocation chart was designed with high resolution for high zoom capabilities so that researchers can gain a quick overview of the radio services allocated in the radio spectrum in Nigeria.

Keywords: ITU, NTFA, spectrum allocation chart, frequency allocation chart, spectrum chart, NCC

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Designing a Real-time Swept Spectrum Analyser with USRP B210
Bello N. and Ogbeide K. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0275


ABSTRACT
Cognitive radio has received considerable amount of attention as a promising technique to provide dynamic spectrum allocation. Spectrum sensing is one of the basic functions in the cognitive radio and is crucial to all other functions. Software- defined radios (SDRs) are considered due to its very high flexibility and have become a common platform for CR implementation replacing expensive spectrum analysers. The most popular among various SDR platforms is the universal software-defined radio peripheral (USRP). This paper presents a real-time swept spectrum sensing solution based on USRP B210. It also presents a detailed explanation of the concept of energy detection and the methodology for wide-band sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed sensing solution is analysed through FFT graphs and spectrogram plot taken for 8 hours. The results showed that the proposed sensing solution was capable of achieving high resolution in the frequency domain of the wide band measured which implies that wide bands with heterogenous signals like the ISM band can be accurately resolved and analysed.

Keywords: Wide-band sensing, GNU Radio, USRP B210, Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, Software-defined radio

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Evaluation of Fire Disaster Emergency Response Capacity using Open-source Data and Response Time Analysis in Ilorin Metropolis
Ahmadu H. A., Idrees M. O., Omar D. M., Yusuf A., Ipadeola O. A., Alade A. K. and Abdulyekeen A. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0281


ABSTRACT
This study evaluates the response capacity to fire disaster emergency response system in Ilorin metropolis using Open-source data and response time analysis. Road and street information were obtained from Geofabrik. In addition, coordinates of fire service stations and fire disaster risk spots, specifically fuel and gas stations were acquired using Garmin 76X handheld GPS. Using the relationship of the length of road segments and speed, the travel time was computed in ArcGIS 10.4 environment. With the Network analyst tool, the response capability of the fire stations was evaluated at different response times (1, 2, and 3 minutes) based on service area coverage. The results showed that the fire stations could only cover 0.24%, 0.68%, and 1.22% of the service area within 1-, 2- and 3-minute response time, respectively, whereas 97.86% of the metropolis requires longer time (>3 minutes). Finding from this study has revealed the inadequacy of the existing fire disaster emergency response system to effectively cover the city. This will be useful for local and state governments in policy directives on strengthening fire disaster emergency response structure.

Keywords: Fire disaster, Response capability, Flashover, Response time, Ilorin, Geofabrik

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Phenotypic (Fruit and Seed Characters) Selection of Dacryodes edulis (Don. G. Lam H. J.) Tree for Vegetative Propagation
Okonkwo H. O., Ubaekwe R. E., Okeke A. N. and Malizu L. C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0280


ABSTRACT
The study was conducted to identify superior D. edulis trees using phenotypic characters (fruit and seed size) as the criteria to select candidate trees for subsequent multiplication through vegetative propagation. Five D. edulis compound trees were randomly selected within Onne community in Eleme LGA Rivers state in a preliminary effort to assist households in the selection and multiplication of desirable tree phenotypes. Seeds were extracted by softening fruit with warm water at 57oC. Fruit and seed length (mm), breadth (mm), and thickness (mm) were taken using veneer caliper. Size of fruit and seed was calculated as: length × breadth × thickness. The experiment was a completely randomized design in its layout and data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and regression after a normality test was conducted using Shapiro-Wilk. The results showed that highest mean fruit size (79.38 ± 3.99 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest was tree 5 (29.60 ± 1.48 mm): while, highest seed size (34.78 ± 2.47 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest in tree 4 (15.58 ± 0.99 mm). Highest within tree fruit size variability was recorded in tree 1 (24%) and the lowest in tree 4 (12%): while the highest within tree seed size variability was recorded in tree 2 (28%) and the lowest in tree 5 (15%). There was however a significant difference in fruit and seed size between the trees. Pairwise comparison showed that tree 1 was not significantly different from tree 2 in fruit and seed size. There was a significant positive correlation between fruit and seed size among the trees. This implies that selection for large fruit size automatically selects for large seeds size. Large fruited trees can therefore be multiplied from these trees using vegetative propagation.

Keywords: Phenotype, Selection, Fruit, Seed, Multiplication

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Assessment of Adjustments Methods in Traverse Networks for Positioning
Hart L., Basil D. D. and Oba T.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0283


ABSTRACT
Various factors contribute to the degree of accuracy of the adjusted parameter (coordinate), one of which is the choice of adjustment model. Adjustment models seeks to eliminate (accounts) for the presence of random errors present in a given observations. The choice is critical for surveyors and other spatial analysts for optimal positioning and mapping projects since different adjustment models will yield different level of accuracy of spatial information generated irrespective of the quality of observations. For a traversing network, various adjustment models have been put forward which include; the Transit, the Bowditch, and the Crandels models. In spite of these models, internal consistency and reliability indicators of the network of positions are determined using the least squares adjustment model (observation equation and condition equation models). The aim of this work is to analyze the various traverse adjustment models. The approach deployed in this work was to compute the provisional coordinate of six traverse stations using the approximate methods of adjustment i.e., Bowditch and transit methods of traverse adjustment models. In addition, the least square adjustment models were deployed to minimize the propagation of residuals of the obtained values. The adjusted distances and directions were then compared with the observed distances and directions to obtain the residuals. The coordinate of positions was determined and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) associated with the traverse adjustment models are given as 0.128702264 and 0.008560954. Similarly, the RMSE of the adjusted values using the least square models are given as 0.007181432, and 0.005763969 for the observation and condition equation models respectively. The analysis of these results reveals that the traverse adjustment models are unique with capabilities embedded in the determination of the observables during data acquisition. However, for mapping and engineering survey of small locations, the transit method is more preferable to the Bowditch method.

Keywords: Adjustment models, Least squares adjustment, Traverse, Root Mean Square Error

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Changes in Anatomical Features of Chromolaena Odorata during Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals
Omoregie G. O. and Ikhajiagbe B
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0285


ABSTRACT
The present study investigated the accumulation of selected HMs by Chromolaena odorata and the concomitant effects on leaf anatomical features. Top soils were collected from a marked plot and pooled together to obtain a composite sample. The soil was sun-dried to constant weight and measured into experimental pots at 20kg each). The pots were divided into 5 metal groups with 3 sub-groups each. Each group was polluted with Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in their respective chloride forms. Concentrations of the metals in the soil were initially based on their respective ecological screening value/benchmark (ESV). The ESV values for the 5 HMs were 50, 4, 100, 50 and 50 mg/kg respectively. Within each group, the respective HMs was applied in 3 concentrations of 1ESV, 3ESV and 5ESV. The control experiment consisted of plants grown in soils with no exogenous application of the test metals. The experiment was triplicated. Twenty hours later, equal sized stem cuttings of C. odorata (2.0 – 2.3cm in thickness, 30 cm in length) were planted per experimental pot. Six months later, results showed significant accumulation of metals in plant stem, leaves, and most especially the root. Mn was the most accumulated HM in all plant parts (9.22 – 17.86 mg/kg), compared to Cd (0.85 – 1.66 mg/kg).Significant changes in folial anatomy were reported in HM-impacted plants compared to the control. There were more upper epidermal stomata (270 – 353 mm2) in Mn-exposed plants compared to the others. Increase in vascular bundle thickness (p<0.01) was reported in HM-exposed plants compared to control. Highly significant decrease in stem parenchyma thickness (p<0.01) never the less parenchyma thickness of HM-exposed plants ranged from 46.37 – 49.53 µm in Zn and Pb-exposed plants compared to 79.23 µm in the control.

Keywords: Chromolaena odorata, Ecological screening value, Anatomy, Heavy metal, Phytotoxicity, Ecophysiology

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Effect of Confining Pressures on the Dynamic Response Characteristics of Niger Delta Clay Soils
Okovido J. O. and Kennedy C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0257


ABSTRACT
The study investigated the earthquake potential in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A series of resonant column and bender element test was performed on compacted clay soil samples across the investigated Niger Delta States, which showed the influence of confinement on frequency, shear modulus, shear velocity and damping ratio. The confinement in clay was high. The frequency response increases with pressure increase. Also, the resonance column test at various confinements revealed changes in shear modulus, accelerometer output and damping ratio. Thus, there was high variation in the test parameters as confinement pressure was increased. Similarly, the bender element tests also showed that pressure has effect on shear wave-velocity, shear modulus and damping ratio confinement. Although, unlike Resonance Column tests, the shear modulus and shear wave-velocity generally increased as confinement pressure was increased, while for damping ratio it decreases as confinement pressure was increased. The variations in resonance column/binder element test parameters showed that the Niger Delta region, as an oil and gas area, is susceptible to earthquake. Therefore, continuous monitoring of oil exploration activities must be put in place.

Keywords: Earthquake, Confinement pressure, Seismic properties

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Waste Disposal Practices and its Environmental Implications
Fakorede C. O., Anguruwa G. T., Ajayi O. B., and Odega C. A.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0284


ABSTRACT
Waste generation is inevitable in every human society, although methods of disposal may differ from region to region especially developing and developed nations, yet waste disposal is generally necessary. This study therefore investigated waste disposal practices amongst residents of Oluyole local government area of Ibadan, Oyo State. It was observed that (44.4% ) and (32.4%) of the residents dumped their household refuse with government and private waste collectors respectively, but majority utilized improper waste disposal methods such as dumping in rivers (10.3%), roadsides(14.8%), open dumpsites (20.4%), gutter (9.3%), and open-air burning(33.3%). Larger proportion (97.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that indiscriminate waste dumping has inimical environmental implications such as flooding, disruption of aesthetic beauty, disease, river pollution amongst others. In order to bring the situation under control, the respondents prefer the full involvement of the government waste collection agency instead of private waste collectors. It is therefore recommended that government waste collector should be empowered to penetrate more traditional core areas for more effective waste collection.

Keywords: Waste, Improper, Open-air burning, Flood, Disease

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Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration from a Lead-Zinc Mined Pit at Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Nwakanma C., Nmecha C. and Onyeizu R. U.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0288


ABSTRACT
This study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and surface water from a Lead-Zinc mined pit at Enyigba, Ikwo Local Government Area in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected and analysed from different soil depths (0 – 15 cm) and (15 – 30 cm) at a tailing down (marked as TD) and refuse dumpsite (marked as RD) and a vegetation site 50 km away which was used as the control site. Surface water samples were collected from the Enyigba River from three (3) points (marked as point A, B, and C) and were analysed using routine laboratory procedures. The following parameters were analysed for soil: particle size distribution, pH, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter content, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, exchangeable acidity, and effective cation exchange capacity. The results for mean values of soil samples obtained at both depths were 58.86% (sand), 11.73% (silt) and 34.04% (clay). Mean values obtained for heavy metals from the soil for Iron (Fe) ranged from 3.31 to 2.24 mg/kg: Zinc (Zn) 0.70 to 0.62 mg/kg and Lead (Pb) 0.01 to 0.01 mg/kg). Results obtained for surface water around the mined pit showed mean values for Iron (Fe) 0.57 mg/L, Magnesium (Mg) 151.6 mg/L, Calcium (Ca) 76.62 mg/L, Chlorine (Cl2) 416.6 mg/L and Lead (Pb) 0.01 mg/L. The high concentrations of chlorine make the water unsuitable to be discharged on any agricultural land as plants could accumulate these metals and when consumed could pose serious threat to humans. The discharge from the mining site increased the already slightly high turbidity of the water to a much higher and undesirable level. The mining activity at Enyigba Ikwo LGA, Ebonyi State has negatively impacted the environment through the introduction of heavy metals in soil and surface water, thereby causing an increase in the pollution of the environment. It is recommended that further studies and monitoring should be carried out in the study location for possible remediation.

Keywords: Mining, Heavy metals, Pollution, Ebonyi State, Lead-Zinc mined pits

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Effect of Confining Pressures on Dynamic Response Characteristics of Silty Soils in the Niger Delta
Okovido J. O. and Kennedy C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0258


ABSTRACT
The probability of earthquake occurrence in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied in this research. The resonant column/bender element tests were used for the study. Series of analysis were carried out on compacted silt in subsoil strata obtained from various locations in Rivers, Bayelsa, Delta and Akwa Ibom States. The effects of confinement on frequency, shear modulus, shear velocity and damping ratio were studied. The tests results revealed that confinement has effects on the investigated parameters. Thus, frequency response increases with increase in confinement pressure. Also, the resonance column test at various confinements revealed changes in shear modulus, accelerometer output and damping ratio. Accordingly, there was high disparity in the tested parameters as confinement pressure was increased. Similarly, the bender element tests also showed that pressure has effect on shear wave-velocity, shear modulus and damping ratio confinement. The shear modulus and shear wave-velocity generally increased as confinement pressure was increased, while damping ratio decreases as confinement pressure was increased. The variations in Resonance Column/Bender Element test parameters showed that the silty soil in the Niger Delta region, an oil and gas rich area, is likely to experience earthquake in the future. Therefore, geological data should be collated for monitoring, especially as several geological activities take place in the region.

Keywords: Earthquake, Confinement Pressure, Seismic Properties

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Assessing Wind Impact on Noise Level Measurements for Application in Architectural Acoustics: A Preliminary Study
Ocholi M., Ibe K. E., Iheonu E. E. and Ameh E. E.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0290


ABSTRACT
In this study, we have used wind data obtained from an earlier work covering several locations in Nigeria to estimate the possible impact of wind on sound pressure levels. Estimated Weibull parameters were used to compute the most probable wind speed, the average wind speed and the duration for which wind speed exceeds or equal the most probable speed. Adopting the proposed criteria that wind is able to strengthen or weaken sound pressure levels by 3dB depending on wind direction, the effect of wind on sound pressure level was determined. Results showed that wind effect seemed more predominant for the sub-sahelian stations such as Sokoto, Kano, and Maiduguri where the impact was found to be +/- 3dB obviously due to the characteristic high wind speeds recorded at those stations. The situation is almost the same for the midland region except that moderate impacts were found in some of the stations like Yola, Yelwa and Bauchi. However, moderate wind impacts generally characterize the Guinea Savannah and the coastal regions with the exception of Enugu with an impact of +/- 3dB. The result for Warri was found to be insignificant. It was concluded that most locations within the Nigerian environment may attain the wind conditions that would necessitate an adjustment in noise level measurements for application in architectural acoustics. In order to further validate the results of this preliminary study, it was recommended that detailed field survey where all relevant parameters such as wind speeds, wind directions and noise levels are simultaneously measured be conducted.

Keywords: Sound Pressure Level, Wind, Environmental Noise, Architectural Acoustics, Noise Measurement

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Flood Susceptibility Mapping of Makera District and Environs in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State-Nigeria
Ibrahim U. S., Youngu T. T., Swafiyudeen B., Abubakar A. Z., Zainabu A. K., Usman I. A., Adamu S., and Abubakar A. M.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0287


ABSTRACT
The increased flood incidences experienced all over the world due to climate change dynamics call for a concerted effort towards forestalling future hazards. This study thus, identified the areas that are susceptibility to floods in parts of the Makera district of the Kaduna South Local Government Area in Nigeria using geospatial techniques. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to produce thematic layers of the factors contributing to flooding (elevation, slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use/land cover); and a multi-criteria evaluation particularly the “Analytical Hierarchical process” (AHP) was applied to determine the locations at risk. The various thematic layers were integrated into the weighted overlay tool in the ArcGIS 10.3 environment to generate the final susceptibility map. The overlay tool was also used to determine the elements at risk of flood in the study area. The results show that the areas that were highly susceptible to flood constituted about 39% of the study area, while moderate and low vulnerable areas constituted about 26% and 35%, respectively. The result of the multi-criteria analysis revealed that land use/land cover (0.601) was the factor that contributed the most to flooding in the study area based on the criteria weights followed by rainfall (0.470), drainage density (0.326), elevation (0.144), and slope (0.099), respectively. The study recommends that authorities concerned should ensure strict adherence to land use planning act, such that floodplains are avoided during development of any type.

Keywords: Flood, Geospatial technique, Multi-criteria analysis, Susceptibility

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Effect of Land Use Changes on the Urban Surface Temperature in Umuahia Town, Southeast, Nigeria
Ike F., Mbah I. C., Ottah, C.R., Babington J., and Chikwendu L.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0291


ABSTRACT
The land surfaces of hot-humid tropical urban areas are exposed to significant levels of solar radiation. Increased heat gain adds to different land surface temperature profiles in cities, resulting in different thermal discomfort thresholds. Using multi-temporal (1986, 2001, and 2017) landsat data, this study examined the impact of land use change on urban temperature profiles in Umuahia, Nigeria. The findings revealed that over time, built-up regions grow in surface area and temperature at the expense of other land use. The transfer matrix, showed that approximately 59.88 percent of vegetation and 8.23 percent of bareland were respectively changed into built up during the course of 31 years. The highest annual mean temperature in built-up regions was 21.50°C in 1986, 22.20°C in 2001, and 26.01°C in 2017. Transect profiles across the landuses reveals that surface Temperature rises slowly around water/vegetation and quickly over built-up and bare land area. The study observed drastic changes in land cover with a corresponding increase in surface temperature for the period between 1986 and 2017 with consistent decrease in water bodies and bare land in the study area. Overall, the spatio-temporal distribution of surface temperature in densely built up areas was higher than the adjacent rural surroundings, which is evidence of Urban Heat Island. The impact of landuse change on urban surface temperature profiles could provide detailed data to planners and decision makers in evaluating thermal comfort levels and other risk considerations in the study area.

Keywords: Humid tropics, Urban heat island, Remote sensing, Land use

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Evaluating the Performance of Autoregressive Model for Solar Radiation Forecasting
Ocholi M., Adeyemi, B., Omojola O. O. and Samuel C. S.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0289


ABSTRACT
The solar radiation data taken from 14 meteorological stations in Nigeria has been analyzed. The periodic component of the data which covered a period of 13 (mostly 1977-1989) years was removed via Fourier analysis while the residual series was subjected to autoregressive analysis. It was evident from the t-test and autocorrelation plots of the modified (i.e. without the periodic component) series that there exist significant persistence at nine stations including Sokoto, Nguru, Kano, Maiduguri, Bauchi, Yola, Minna, Ibadan, and Benin. The autocorrelation at Jos, Bida, Ikeja, Enugu and Port Harcourt were however found to be insignificant. As the sample partial autocorrelation function cuts off after lag 1, a non-seasonal autoregressive model of order 1, AR (1), was identified for stations with autocorrelation. The Q-statistic of error series suggested that the models were adequate as identified. Moreover, the exploratory plots of the model residual series showed agreement with the quantitative statistics and thus enforces the inference that the models were adequate for monthly mean daily global solar radiation forecasts at some of the study stations. It is interesting to note that all the stations within the sub-sahelian region showed significant persistence whereas all the stations in the coastal region except Benin were found with insignificant autocorrelation. Expectedly, the performance evaluation of the model gave impressive result for the stations within the sub-sahelian region but a relatively weak result for the coastal region. The result for the midland region was mixed whereas it was difficult to conclude on the Guinea savannah region with result from only one station.

Keywords: Modelling, Forecasting, Solar radiation, Autocorrelation, Autoregressive model

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Spatio-Temporal Evaluation of Urban Growth of Zuru Metropolis, Nigeria
Maleeks Y. A., Aliyu A. O., Bala A., Isiaka A. U. and Atta K. Z.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0293


ABSTRACT
The pattern of development in a city is mostly governed by urban dynamics, with population increase being the primary driving force. Built-up cover is the most important predictor of urban expansion. Zuru metropolis in Kebbi State has witnessed remarkable developmental activities caused by human influences such as buildings, road constructions, and population growth for over decades. Urban growth was ascertained for a period of 30 years through the analysis of Landsat imagery of 1988, 1998, 2008 and 2018. The datasets were classified into five (5) land covers, namely, built-up, water body, rocky surface, vegetation, and others. Quantitative assessment of the urban growth was ascertained by computing post-classification LC dynamics and Land Consumption Rate/Land Absorption Coefficient (LCR/LAC). The results showed that the built-up cover (urban area) conspicuously increased with area of 693.35 ha, 728.74 ha, 5210.5 ha and 6845.75 ha respectively for the period of study (1988 – 2018). The increment in built-up area was indicative of population growth from 1988 to 2018. The study revealed that between 1988 to 2018 showed that built-up increased by 11.78%, while rocky surface and water body have shrunk by 16.44% and 0.02% respectively, which can be attributed to anthropogenic activities in which rocky surface and waterbody have been transformed into built-up cover. It further revealed that the urban area experienced crowdedness in the years 2008 and 2018 respectively due to high LCR values of 2.71% compared to LCR values of 0.0714% and 0.0558% in 1988 and 1998. Land transformation into urban area and spread of the population to the outskirts of the study area was prominent between 1998 and 2008 due to high LAC value of 0.0998. The study concluded that there was transformation of rocky surface and waterbody into urban area, which was caused by population growth, human and agricultural activities in Zuru metropolis.

Keywords: Built-up, Change detection, Land Absorption Coefficient, Land Coefficient Ratio, Urban growth

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The implication of Energy on Nigeria’s Economy: Case Study of Crude Oil Energy Source
Otitigbe F. E.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0302


ABSTRACT
The shortfall in crude oil production, the major source of energy supply and revenue generation in Nigeria, affects all spheres of activities in the country. Activities like politics, economic, budgeting, infrastructural development, the standard of living, and foreign exchange reserve. Therefore, it is imperative to address the implication of energy (crude oil source) on the economy of Nigeria. Hence, a linear regression analysis was used and by first creating a link between oil production (main energy source) and oil earnings (economy) to establish a relationship upon which social-political factors such as the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC), civil disturbance, flexible regulating framework, infrastructural services, community inclusion for equitable sharing of benefit, and Niger Delta development commission are used as check and balance on oil production and oil earning and their implications on the Nigeria economy. By way of calibration, the paper examines the amount of oil per barrel needed to be produced in a year that would guarantee an increase in oil earnings in Nigeria. The data used for this analysis were collected from the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistic bulletin on crude oil production and total earning in Nigeria between 1980 to 1999. The paper also suggests measures that would enhance the increase in the production of oil from which the country would be able to earn more revenue. The result shows that increasing oil production will simultaneously increase earnings from oil and, consequently, overhaul the various activities such as economy, infrastructural development, health, education sectors, and living standard of the citizen.

Keywords: Crude oil, Poverty, Revenue, Energy, Economy, CBN

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Geospatial Assessment of the Consumption and Absorption of Residential and Educational Land Uses of Zaria and Sabon Gari Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
Sule J. O., Ojigi L. M., Adewuyi T. O., Azua S., Aliyu A. O. and Akomolafe E. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0299


ABSTRACT
Human variables such as population increase and distribution, as well as economic expansion, have a strong impact on land usage. Zaria and Sabon Gari local government areas are endowed with various types of institutions that attract people from far and near to its space for studies and employments. This in turn leads to increase in population growth and the expansion of residential land use (LU). Thus, this study assessed the Land Consumption Rate (LCR) and Land Absorption Coefficient (LAC) of the residential and educational LUs using geospatial technique. The study analyzed Landsat imagery of 1987, 1999, 2006, and 2018. The study utilized a combination of quantitative (pixel-based) and qualitative (digitizing) methods of image classification for classifying the residential and educational LUs and biophysical covers. Quantitative assessment of the LU dynamics was achieved by the post-classification computation of LU dynamics, LCR, and LAC. The results revealed that residential LU occupied an area of 2594.25ha in 1987, 2815.15ha in 1999, 4042.54ha in 2006, and 8033.19ha in 2018. In the same vein, the educational LU occupied area of 2623.41ha in 1987, 2991.87ha in 1999, 3021.10ha in 2006, and 3093.75ha in 2018. The LCR values for residential LU were 0.555%, 0.468%, 0.579%, and 0.803% for the years 1987, 1999, 2006, and 2018 respectively. The LCR reduced from 1987 to 1999 and then increased from 1999 to 2018. The LAC values for the residential LU increased across the period of the study. The study concluded that the exploitation of the new lands for residential and educational LUs could be as a result of the demographic and institutional drivers of LU. The study suggested that the urban planning authority should develop planning measures that will regulate the already crowded residential LU in the study area.was transformation of rocky surface and waterbody into urban area, which was caused by population growth, human and agricultural activities in Zuru metropolis.

Keywords: Educational, Land absorption coefficient, Land coefficient ratio, Land use, Residential

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Evaluation of Peanut Shell, Bentonite Clay and its Composites in the Removal of Dye (Malachite Green) from Industrial Wastewater
Salihu A., Audu E. D., Nzerem P., Gimba S. B., Okafor I. and Oghenerume O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0307


ABSTRACT
Curtailing the effects of environmental pollution being a major problem encountered by third-world countries, this study was embarked on to reduce the effect of land and water pollution caused by improper disposal of dye used by industries by using readily available agricultural waste like peanut Shell, bentonite clay and its composite. Analysis that was used included Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Some physical parameters were considered too: Absorbent load, Contact time, pH and Concentration. The results from the SEM, EDX and FTIR showed the adsorptive capacities of the absorbents, it’s functional and the compounds contained. The result of the physical parameters for adsorbent load; Peanut shell the percentage removal increase from 26.93%-28.0% .For bentonite clay increase from 7.05%-8.24%. The combination of both peanut shell and bentonite increased from 93.22%-95.40%. For the contact time the dye removal percentage increase from 99.13%-99.37% which later decreased to 98.16%.Bentonite clay decreased from 71.09%-69.53% and later increased to 70.13%. The combination decreased from 52.33%-51.29% and increased to 52.60%bbut decreased at the last lap to 50.83% At 60-80minutes optimal time was achieved due to saturation of active sites for high removal of dye efficiency. pH was observed too which varied. Peanut shell shows that the percentage removal increased from 61.89%-62.37% then decreased to 60.87%.Bentonite clay decreased from completely from 99.72%-97.58%. The combination decreased from 32.14%-31.94% then increased to 33.54%.We can say that for the peanut shell and the combination of both peanut shell and bentonite clay pH was increased slightly at the acidic side.

Keywords: Peanut shell, Bentonite clay, Malachachite green, Dye, Industrial waste

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Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Transesterification Process using Heterogeneous Catalyst
Salihu A., Mahmood A. A., Gimba S. B., Nzerem P. and Okafor I.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0308


ABSTRACT
Non-renewable diesel from fossil has been considered as potentially carcinogenic with serious harmful effect to human health and to the environment. This study aimed to produce a renewable diesel –biodiesel- via transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO), investigated and determined the most suitable amongst various types of heterogenous catalysts (viz a viz KOH/CaCO3, KOH/CaO and KOH/K2CO3). The chemical and physical characterisation of the biodiesel was been carried out. Among the catalysts investigated, KOH/CaCO3 catalyst showed the best catalytic performance in terms of % yield and better fuel quality in density, acid value, viscosity and free fatty acid. The reason for this performance may be due to its most basic characteristic than the others. As a result, this catalyst was selected for the optimisation study. At the optimum reaction conditions of 10 wt% catalyst loading and 1:10 oil to methanol feed mole ratio, triglycerides conversion was highest, 98.12%. The characterisation results shows that the parameters tested (i.e. density, viscosity, acid value and free fatty acid) meet the strict requirements of the biodiesel standard and therefore, the produced fuel can be used in place of the petrol diesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Waste cooking oil, Transesterification, WCO, Heterogeneous catalyst

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Water and Sanitation Situation in Selected Villages in Ifedore Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria
Rotowa O. O. and Adeleye O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0298


ABSTRACT
Water is essential for life, while sanitation is for dignity. Worldwide, Nigeria is second to India in term of open defecation, with an estimated population of 109 million open defecators. The rural areas currently lagged behind the urban areas in term of water and sanitation. A survey of two villages in the Ifedore Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria was conducted, using 88 respondents selected through purposive sampling technique from Ikota and Aaye village cluster. Findings from the study revealed that sources of water are boreholes, wells and streams. On the other hand, most of the indigenes still practice open defecation, though some of them use water closet, pour flush toilet and variances of pit latrine as toilet. Most of them still expect the government to install and maintain facilities provided. It is suggested that demand driven and the bottom-top approach where the people first believe that water and sanitation prevent diseases and provide longevity be explored. It is believed that reinventing the services of sanitary officers (Wole Wole), will help in disseminating and enforcing proper hygienic practices.

Keywords: Water, Sanitation, Ifedore, Villages, Culture

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COVID-19 Pandemic and Hygiene: Assessment of Running-water Infrastructure in Secondary Schools in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria
Olajuyigbe A. O., Okubena M. R., Rotowa O. O. and Ayodele O. A.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0296


ABSTRACT
COVID-19 is an infectious disease, a product of a freshly discovered coronavirus. With no specific cure as of now, preventing its spread is important to minimize its outbreak. The study was carried out on secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area (LGA), one of the 20 LGAs in Ogun State, Nigeria. Primary data on water availability, supply, connection to buildings, handwashing facility coverage and functionality were sourced from public secondary schools in Ijebu-North LGA with the aid of questionnaires. Findings revealed that only one school (Molusi College, Ijebu-Igbo) is fully equipped with running water connected to buildings and with functional handwashing facilities in place. Most of the schools do not have water infrastructure that can support adequate hygiene, with a score of 16 out of the total 95 available scores. Since regular and thorough washing of hands with soap and water, reduces the chances of being infected by or spreading COVID-19, this study advocates for direct taking over of water infrastructure provided in schools by the Water Agency in the areas where these schools are allocated. This take-over will be for the purpose of routine maintenance for the sustainability of the water infrastructure. Government and other donors should facilitate investments in water, sanitation and hygiene in order to prepare these schools for resumption and sustenance after the health crisis.

Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Running Water Infrastructure, Secondary School

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An Assessment of Environmental Awareness in Selected Areas of Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State
Lawuyi T. and Yohanna P.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0286


ABSTRACT
Environmental awareness is understanding the fragility of our environment, its susceptibility to the devastating impact of human activities and the how to protect and preserve it. The research work assessed the Environmental Awareness in selected areas of Jos North Local Government area of Plateau State as its objective. The survey covered a sample population of 300 drawn from the three selected areas namely; Terminus (CBD), Faringada/University of Jos and Tudun Wada areas. The studied variables included the demographic characteristics of respondents including their ages, sex, educational attainment, family size, types of energy sources for home and industrial use, environment predispositions, knowledge of localised and general environmental facts and issues. The result showed that of the respondents, 42.86% are secondary school students, 68.22% have attained tertiary level of education, 46.72% comply with views on proper waste disposal, 38.66% dump waste into the stream, 35.37% and 27.95% of households use electricity from the mains and kerosene for cooking while 4.80% and 13.68% reported their planting and felling trees respectively. The results further showed that of the respondents, 61.57% do not ride bicycle, 99.56% use some form of renewable energy, 61.28% crave green life style while 67.62% and 1.75% rely on electricity from the mains and on solar panel as primary source of energy generation. The null hypotheses I, II and III were rejected at 0.0005 (p&lt;.05), degrees of freedom = 3,3 and 1, p-values = 48.023, 190.614 and 24.563 with respondents of tertiary level education having the highest number for knowledge of environmental awareness, age range of 36 – 55 years having the highest number of environmentally friendly life style and who received enlightenment on environmental issues through informal education higher than those who received enlightenment through formal education respectively.

Keywords: Assessment, Environmental, Awareness, Energy, Climate, Population

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Monitoring the Short-term Variations in the Stability of the Nigerian GNSS CORS Diurnal Coordinates
Moses M., Bawa S., Nzelibe I. U., Akomolafe E. A. and Samson B.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0313


ABSTRACT
Positioning, based on GNSS reference network technology, is becoming a routine operation within and outside the spatial industry. The expanding user base and diverse range of applications employing this technology can impose significant expectations on the providers of reference network services. In positioning and navigation, the requirement for high accurate coordinate estimates cannot be over-emphasized. This is ensured by the provision of accurate and reliable corrections from the zero-order GNSS reference stations. It is therefore expedient to study the diurnal coordinates of such stations to guarantee reliable information for positioning and navigation applications. In this study, observation data from the Nigerian permanent GNSS continuously operating reference stations located at different states around Nigeria was processed. The hourly and diurnal (daily) coordinate solutions obtained were analysed for the purpose of monitoring the short-term stability of the network coordinates using a two-year (2012-2013) test data. The daily precise point positioning results were processed, analysed, and presented as coordinate time series using RTKPLOT. Python programming language was used to write custom modules to visualize the time series graphs at 30 seconds epochs in order to determine points and epochs where and when the condition for stability defaulted. The stations; FPNO, GEMB, and MDGR were found to be most stable in the Easting component; GEMB and MDGR were the most stable in the Northing component while in the Up component the station GEMB was the most stable. The outcome of the study will assist in detecting stations that are non-operational, performing diurnal PPP processing to detect stations that are unstable, and reporting reference stations that experience sudden coordinate changes. The developed monitoring module can be implemented by the reference stations operators as an automated program for setting up an intelligent alert system to trigger a warning whenever there is unexpected coordinate breach.

Keywords: Coordinates stability, GNSS, CORS, NIGNET, Positioning, PPP

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High Voltage Overhead Powerlines Routing in Central Nigeria using GIS-MCDA Approach and Environmental Impact Factors
Osarenren O., Ehiorobo J. O. and Izinyon O. C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0320


ABSTRACT
High voltage overhead transmission line route selection has become a vital component of the power transmission line project life cycle as demand for electricity has increased and global awareness of the environmental implications of large-scale power projects has grown. The project necessitates meticulous planning, engineering designs, facility installations, commissioning, and maintenance, as any errors made at this stage may have a flowing detrimental impact on the following phase, which may be too costly to fix. Using geographic information system (GIS), multi-criteria decision analysis approach, and environmental impact factors strategies, this study determines the best route from existing geographical space between Lafia 330/132/33kV Substation in Nasarawa State and New Apo (Pigba) 330/132/33/kV Substation in the Federal Capital Territory, Central Nigeria, Abuja. Land use, land cover, and other environmental data were obtained by performing image classification on Landsat 8 satellite image using ArcGIS 10.1 to achieve this goal. Three key terrain elements were identified to define the land cover types: built-up areas, vegetation, and water bodies. These layers were created to reveal the locations of significant settlements, geological formations, and the HV-OHTL route that avoided crossing protected areas. Using pair-wise comparison of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach, each criterion evaluated was assigned relative weight that shows their level of influence on the proposed power transmission line, and these were provided as GIS layers for visualizations. To build the cost surfaces assessed during route selection for HV-OHTL, weights derived from AHP method for each decision makers were applied to all layers to create the cost surfaces analyzed during route selection for HV-OHTL.

Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Least Cost Path, High Voltage Overhead Transmission Line (HV-OHTL), Substation

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Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Water Quality Index and Geographic Information System in Kumbotso Local Government Area, Kano State, Nigeria
Saidu A. A., Danazumi S. and Hamza S. M.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0318


ABSTRACT
Water managers are faced with issues of groundwater resources management in dry land environments characterized by increasing population growth and prolonged dry period. Pollution of such resources has become a problem of notable importance in many arid and semi-arid environments of the developing countries. Unplanned urbanization; industrialization coupled with an increase in agricultural expansion has adversely affected groundwater quality. This study provides an overview of the status of groundwater quality in Kumbotso L.G.A using Water Quality Index. Physico-chemical parameters of pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, calcium, and sulphate were measured from 12 groundwater samples. The results of the analysis were compared to the WHO standards to ascertain conformity with the guidelines. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed for mapping the distribution of various quality parameters as well as the overall groundwater quality condition. The overall map produced shows that 53.42km2 of the study area representing 33.81% were of excellent quality while 104.58km2 representing 66.19% of the area was found to be of good quality. Thus, a GIS based map developed can be a useful practical tool by water managers, policymakers and concerned communities in taking strategic decisions towards effective management of groundwater in the study area.

Keywords: Groundwater sources, Pollution, Water Quality Index, Physico-chemical parameters, Geographical Information System

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Utilization of Quarry Dust as a Partial Replacement of Sand in Concrete Making
Aginam C. H., Nwakaire C. M., Onodagu P. D. and Ezema N. M.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0310


ABSTRACT
The use of crushed quarry dust as a partial replacement of river sand in concrete production was investigated in this study. This is expedient as quarry dust can be available at some locations with insufficient river sand for construction purposes. The use of quarry dust is also in concrete is also a measure necessary for improvement of concrete strength. River sand was replaced with quarry dust for different mix designs of concrete for 0% to 25% replacement levels with 5% intervals. The physical properties of river sand and quarry dust were tested and reported and the workability as well as compressive strengths of the concrete mixtures were also tested. It was observed that the slump values increased with increase in percentage replacement of sand with quarry dust. The compressive strength of cubes at 28 day curing for control mixture of 1:3:6 at 0% partial replacement of river sand with quarry dust was 12.6N/mm2 but compressive strengths of 21.5 N/mm2 and 26.0 N/mm2 were gotten for 1:2:4 concrete and 1:1.5:3 concrete respectively. As the quarry dust content increased to 25%, the 28day compressive strength increased to 13.58 N/mm2 and 21.57 N/mm2 for the 1:3:6 and 1:2:4 mixes respectively. Compressive strength values decreased to a value of 25.72N/mm2 for the 1:1.5:3 concrete mix. The maximum compressive strength values were reached at 20% quarry dust content at the age of 28 days for the three concrete grades investigated. The increase in compressive strength with inclusion of quarry dust was attributed to the higher specific gravity of quarry dust above river sand. The compressive strength of quarry dust concrete continued to increase with age for all the percentages of quarry dust contents. Quarry dust was recommended as a suitable partial replacement for river bed sand in concrete production.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Concrete, Fine aggregates, River sand, Quarry dust

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