CURRENT ISSUE   Vol. 5 No. 2 – October 2021


Perception of Residents on the Menace of Solid Waste on Environmental Quality in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
Agbebaku H. U.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0233


ABSTRACT
The paper examined the perception of residents on the menace of solid waste on environmental quality in Benin City, Edo State. There is a linkage between waste management and environmental quality as a filthy environment stimulates environmental ill-quality. The objective of study is to examine human perception and knowledge of residences of the menace of solid waste disposal on environmental quality. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from 25 selected wards and communities (comprising of 110 settlements) which constitutes the study area. These data were collected through systematic sampling technique from the selected streets and houses in each of Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha Local Government council areas. In each of the selected street, the 2nd, middle and 2nd to the last households were selected and administered with questionnaire. A total of 1,781 questionnaires were administered in the 768 polling unit stations acrossed the 3 local government areas of the study. Secondary data were sourced from published and documentary materials. Both the descriptive and statistical analyses were used for the study. The results show that there is variance in human perception and environmental quality does not vary significantly among residents of the 3 Local Government areas namely: Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha in Benin City. The study recommends that there should be a change of human attitudes and techniques on waste management and proffer better orientations of the menace of waste on environmental quality. There should be stiff measures of enforcement on residences while Sanitary Health Officers needs to intensify drives on sanitation and crammed down on offenders and environmental waste managers of the danger of indiscriminate dumps of waste anywhere and anyhow in the City of Benin. Finally, there should be improved waste management mechanism, routine fumigation and remediation been carried out on regular bases on the components of the environment as this will help to curb the menace of ill-managed waste disposal in Benin City.

Keywords: Environmental Quality, Menace, Perception, Residents, Solid Waste and Benin City

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An Assessment of the Relevance of Mapping and Sampling of Land-Use Types on Groundwater Quality in Apapa Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria
Agbebaku H. U.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0234


ABSTRACT
The paper examined the assessment of the relevance of mapping and sampling of land-use types; residential, commercial and industrial on groundwater quality in the Apapa Local Government area of Lagos. Mapping of an area provides information, delineation, features and interpretation about an area while sampling revealed detailed analyses about a-cross-sections of the problem identified procedures and proper solutions. There exists a correlation between mapping and sampling of groundwater quality of the land use types in Apapa. The objective of the study was to examine the relevance of mapping and sampling on its effects on groundwater quality of the 3 most land-use types in Apapa. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from mapping of the aerial and ground features of the study area and collection of water samples from 30 hand-dug wells. These samples were analysed in the laboratory to ascertain the states of physical and chemical parameters of the 30 sampled points. The techniques of field studies and analyses of mapping and laboratory experimentation of water samples were used for the study. The results show that mapping of the aerial extent and ground features is relevant to sampling collection because mapping is essentials and provides a fulcrum for physical and human features to be examines where samples of an area or events is to be made. The study recommended that at regular intervals, mapping of an area extent and ground features of sampling points of water sources should be done and made available to examine water quality as recommended by WHO, since flow lines of ground water movement convey pollutants which inferably determine the contamination of water sources. This paper calls for further research of mapping and sampling in other major land use types in other Local Government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Assessment, Groundwater Quality, Land-Use Mapping, Sampling, Relevance and Apapa, Lagos

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Designing a Spectrum Allocation Chart for Nigeria
Bello N. and Edeko F. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0277


ABSTRACT
The regulation of the radio spectrum today by government agencies addresses the issue of interference between radio stations by allocating, allotting and registering bands of radio-frequencies. The framework of management is done at the international, regional and national level. With this paper, we present a study of the radio spectrum allocation policies in some leading countries and Nigeria. However, narrowing the study down to the detailed design of spectrum allocation charts. The study used the information in the national table of frequency allocation (NTFA) to design the spectrum allocation chart of Nigeria with Photoshop application. The spectrum allocation chart was designed with high resolution for high zoom capabilities so that researchers can gain a quick overview of the radio services allocated in the radio spectrum in Nigeria.

Keywords: ITU, NTFA, spectrum allocation chart, frequency allocation chart, spectrum chart, NCC

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Designing a Real-time Swept Spectrum Analyser with USRP B210
Bello N. and Ogbeide K. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0275


ABSTRACT
Cognitive radio has received considerable amount of attention as a promising technique to provide dynamic spectrum allocation. Spectrum sensing is one of the basic functions in the cognitive radio and is crucial to all other functions. Software- defined radios (SDRs) are considered due to its very high flexibility and have become a common platform for CR implementation replacing expensive spectrum analysers. The most popular among various SDR platforms is the universal software-defined radio peripheral (USRP). This paper presents a real-time swept spectrum sensing solution based on USRP B210. It also presents a detailed explanation of the concept of energy detection and the methodology for wide-band sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed sensing solution is analysed through FFT graphs and spectrogram plot taken for 8 hours. The results showed that the proposed sensing solution was capable of achieving high resolution in the frequency domain of the wide band measured which implies that wide bands with heterogenous signals like the ISM band can be accurately resolved and analysed.

Keywords: Wide-band sensing, GNU Radio, USRP B210, Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, Software-defined radio

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Evaluation of Fire Disaster Emergency Response Capacity using Open-source Data and Response Time Analysis in Ilorin Metropolis
Ahmadu H. A., Idrees M. O., Omar D. M., Yusuf A., Ipadeola O. A., Alade A. K. and Abdulyekeen A. O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0281


ABSTRACT
This study evaluates the response capacity to fire disaster emergency response system in Ilorin metropolis using Open-source data and response time analysis. Road and street information were obtained from Geofabrik. In addition, coordinates of fire service stations and fire disaster risk spots, specifically fuel and gas stations were acquired using Garmin 76X handheld GPS. Using the relationship of the length of road segments and speed, the travel time was computed in ArcGIS 10.4 environment. With the Network analyst tool, the response capability of the fire stations was evaluated at different response times (1, 2, and 3 minutes) based on service area coverage. The results showed that the fire stations could only cover 0.24%, 0.68%, and 1.22% of the service area within 1-, 2- and 3-minute response time, respectively, whereas 97.86% of the metropolis requires longer time (>3 minutes). Finding from this study has revealed the inadequacy of the existing fire disaster emergency response system to effectively cover the city. This will be useful for local and state governments in policy directives on strengthening fire disaster emergency response structure.

Keywords: Fire disaster, Response capability, Flashover, Response time, Ilorin, Geofabrik

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Phenotypic (Fruit and Seed Characters) Selection of Dacryodes edulis (Don. G. Lam H. J.) Tree for Vegetative Propagation
Okonkwo H. O., Ubaekwe R. E., Okeke A. N. and Malizu L. C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2021.02.0280


ABSTRACT
The study was conducted to identify superior D. edulis trees using phenotypic characters (fruit and seed size) as the criteria to select candidate trees for subsequent multiplication through vegetative propagation. Five D. edulis compound trees were randomly selected within Onne community in Eleme LGA Rivers state in a preliminary effort to assist households in the selection and multiplication of desirable tree phenotypes. Seeds were extracted by softening fruit with warm water at 57oC. Fruit and seed length (mm), breadth (mm), and thickness (mm) were taken using veneer caliper. Size of fruit and seed was calculated as: length × breadth × thickness. The experiment was a completely randomized design in its layout and data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and regression after a normality test was conducted using Shapiro-Wilk. The results showed that highest mean fruit size (79.38 ± 3.99 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest was tree 5 (29.60 ± 1.48 mm): while, highest seed size (34.78 ± 2.47 mm) was recorded in tree 3 and the lowest in tree 4 (15.58 ± 0.99 mm). Highest within tree fruit size variability was recorded in tree 1 (24%) and the lowest in tree 4 (12%): while the highest within tree seed size variability was recorded in tree 2 (28%) and the lowest in tree 5 (15%). There was however a significant difference in fruit and seed size between the trees. Pairwise comparison showed that tree 1 was not significantly different from tree 2 in fruit and seed size. There was a significant positive correlation between fruit and seed size among the trees. This implies that selection for large fruit size automatically selects for large seeds size. Large fruited trees can therefore be multiplied from these trees using vegetative propagation.

Keywords: Phenotype, Selection, Fruit, Seed, Multiplication

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