Changes in Anatomical Features of Chromolaena Odorata during Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals

Omoregie G. O.1,3,* and Ikhajiagbe B.2,3,4

1Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Fed. Univ. of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria
2Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
3Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Nigeria
4Applied Environmental Biosciences and Public Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Nigeria

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 Vol. 5 No. 2  | October 2021 | Pages 365 – 376 |   Cite this article



The present study investigated the accumulation of selected HMs by Chromolaena odorata and the concomitant effects on leaf anatomical features. Top soils were collected from a marked plot and pooled together to obtain a composite sample. The soil was sun-dried to constant weight and measured into experimental pots at 20kg each). The pots were divided into 5 metal groups with 3 sub-groups each. Each group was polluted with Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in their respective chloride forms. Concentrations of the metals in the soil were initially based on their respective ecological screening value/benchmark (ESV). The ESV values for the 5 HMs were 50, 4, 100, 50 and 50 mg/kg respectively. Within each group, the respective HMs was applied in 3 concentrations of 1ESV, 3ESV and 5ESV. The control experiment consisted of plants grown in soils with no exogenous application of the test metals. The experiment was triplicated. Twenty hours later, equal sized stem cuttings of C. odorata (2.0 – 2.3cm in thickness, 30 cm in length) were planted per experimental pot. Six months later, results showed significant accumulation of metals in plant stem, leaves, and most especially the root. Mn was the most accumulated HM in all plant parts (9.22 – 17.86 mg/kg), compared to Cd (0.85 – 1.66 mg/kg).Significant changes in folial anatomy were reported in HM-impacted plants compared to the control. There were more upper epidermal stomata (270 – 353 mm2) in Mn-exposed plants compared to the others. Increase in vascular bundle thickness (p<0.01) was reported in HM-exposed plants compared to control. Highly significant decrease in stem parenchyma thickness (p<0.01) never the less parenchyma thickness of HM-exposed plants ranged from 46.37 – 49.53 µm in Zn and Pb-exposed plants compared to 79.23 µm in the control.

Keywords: Chromolaena odorata, Ecological screening value, Anatomy, Heavy metal, Phytotoxicity, Ecophysiology

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Cite this article as:

Omoregie G. O. and Ikhajiagbe B., 2021. Changes in Anatomical Features of Chromolaena Odorata during Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals. Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 5(2), pp. 365-376.

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