Vol. 3 No. 1 – March 2019
Download full issue (Pages 1 – 209 with Cover Page, List of Editorial Board Members, Table of Contents and Back Matter)
Ekaye S., Uwagie-Ero E. A. and Aghayedo C. O.
The study was conducted to determine the possible ameliorative activity of coconut oil on the toxic effects of untreated refinery effluents on the ovaries of Norwegian rats. Three experimental groups of 10 rats each were used for the study; all animals had feed and water ad libitum. Group 1 was untreated and served as the control group, Group 2 was treated with 2 ml of untreated refinery effluent daily PO and group 3 was treated with 2 ml of untreated refinery effluent and 2 ml of coconut oil daily PO for 9 weeks. Every 3 weeks 2 rats in each group were euthanized with chloroform and ovarian tissues were surgically harvested; tissue concentration of heavy metals was assayed and histology was carried out. Treatment was discontinued at nine weeks and rats in group 2 and 3 were designated groups 4 and 5; allowed a 21 days resting period after which they were euthanized, ovaries surgically harvested and assayed as well. Results indicate that changes in ovarian tissue concentration of Chromium and Lead in the treated groups were of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.05) compared to control. Results also showed that rats treated with coconut oil as abatement had normal histological architecture. Coconut oil had ameliorative effects on the ovary of rats intoxicated with refinery effluent and the ovaries returned to normal activities within 21 days post exposure.
Keywords: Coconot oil, Refinery Effluents, Ovary, Toxicity, Amelioration
Osuji S. O. and Kayode-Ojo N.
This study presents the evaluation of the feasibility of using bamboo as a potential reinforcement in concrete beams. To achieve this, absorption test, tensile tests on the bamboo; compressive test on concrete cubes were conducted. Three-point bending tests on concrete beams reinforced with bamboo were performed to identify their behaviour compared to steel reinforced concrete members. The result for the absorption test indicated that water absorption of bamboo is quite high. The bamboo absorbed about 25% of water of its saturated weight in just 24 hrs and increased number of nodes brought about increased absorption of water. It also showed that the bamboo from the top part of the culm absorbed more water than those from the bottom of the culm, with an increase of about 9%. For the tensile tests all the bamboo specimens showed brittle failure at node, making the node the most critical section for failure under tensile stresses, which was also verified in the beam tests. The yield stress was 56.80 N/mm2. In general, the test results indicated that bamboo reinforcement enhanced the load carrying capacity by approximately 200%.
Keywords: Bamboo, Three-point bending tests, Absorption, Tensile tests, Compressive tests
Ayodele E. G., Okolie C. J. and Mayaki O. A.
The Nigerian Geodetic Reference Frame is defined by a number of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that constitute the Nigerian GNSS Network (NIGNET). NIGNET is essential for planning and national development with the main goal of ensuring consistency in the geodetic framework both nationally and internationally. Currently, the strength of the network in terms of data reliability has not been adequately studied due to the fact that research into CORS in Nigeria is just evolving, which constitutes a limitation in its applications. Therefore, the aim of this research is to explore the reliability of the 3-dimensional coordinates of NIGNET to inform usability and adequacy for both scientific and practical applications. In particular, this study examines if the 3-dimensional coordinates of NIGNET are equally reliable in terms of positional accuracy. Accordingly, this study utilised GNSS data collected over a period of six years (2011 – 2016) from the network to compute the daily geocentric coordinates of the stations. Exploratory and statistical data analysis techniques were used to understand the magnitude of the errors and the accuracy level in the 3-dimensional coordinates. For this purpose, accuracy metrics such as standard deviation (𝜎), standard error (𝑆𝐸) and root mean square error (RMSE) were computed. While One-way ANOVA was conducted to explore the coordinate differences. The results obtained showed that SE and RMSE ranged from 13.00 − 56.50𝑚𝑚 and 14.38 − 73.16𝑚𝑚 respectively, which signifies high accuracy. Overall, while 88% of the network showed a high level of positional accuracy, the reliability has been compromised due to excessive gaps in the data archiving. Therefore, due attention must be given to NIGNET to achieve its purpose in the provision of accurate information for various geospatial applications. Also, any efforts directed at understanding the practical implications of NIGNET must be well-embraced for the realization of its set objectives.
Keywords: Geodetic Infrastructure, Reliability, NIGNET, CORS, Data Analysis
Oyewole M. O., Araloyin F. M. and Oyewole P. T.
The study investigated the level of awareness and aspiration of residents for smart building features in Lagos, Nigeria. This is with a view to determining the extent of residents’ level of familiarity and desire for smart homes in the country. Questionnaires were administered on 586 residents selected through systematic random sampling technique in the study area. Having identified the major streets in the study area, the first building along the major streets was selected randomly and every fifth building formed the subsequent unit of study. Data were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution, percentages, and measures of residents’ aspiration index. The results showed that the awareness of smart building technologies was just fair in the study area as almost half of the respondents (49.21%) were not aware of smart building features. The results also indicated that internet facility ranked highest as the medium of awareness for the residents who were aware of smart building features. It was revealed that the aspiration of the residents for smart features was above average (2.98 on a five-point scale). The results showed that the features mostly aspired were features relating to “security and safety” (CCTV, Intrusion detection system and fire detection and alarm), while those relating to building maintenance (Moisture and humidity sensor and building performance analytic devices) were the least category of smart features desired.
Keywords: Energy efficiency, Facility management, Satisfaction, Security, Smart building, Smart features
Epuh, E.E., Sanni, K.A. and Orji, M.J.
Productivity through groundwater is quite high as compared to surface water, but groundwater resources have not yet been properly exploited. The present study is used to delineate various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Lagos metropolis using remote sensing and GIS and hydrogeophysics techniques. Landsat 8, SRTM, geological, soil, and rainfall data were used in the study to prepare various thematic maps, viz., geomorphological, slope, soil, lineament density, rainfall and land use maps. On the basis of relative contribution of each of these maps towards groundwater potential, the weight of each thematic map have been selected and assigned to each map. Hydrogeophysics investigation using Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) was applied to validate the remote sensing and GIS results. All the thematic maps have been registered with one another through ground control points and integrated using the weighted overlay method in GIS for computing groundwater potential index. Based on the methological approach, the ground water potential zones were delineated. The results showed that there are five categories of groundwater potential zones within the study area in which percentage values were contained in each of the categories thereby making major portion of the study area “high” and “moderate” prospect while a few scattered areas have “low” prospect. The very high potential areas are mainly concentrated along the River Alluvium while the “very low” prospect are majorly where there is sand and clay. The best groundwater potential zone is in the southern part due to the presence of fractures, swamp soils which have high infiltration ability and the presence of waterbody which is chiefly accountable for the groundwater recharge in any area. The VES data showed the depth of the aquifer for good water and the polluted aquifer within the study area.
Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, Hydrogeophysics, Groundwater, Aquifer
Garba H. and Elanu C. A.
An assessment of the chemical characteristics of industrial and domestic wastewater discharges on seven parameters into Kaduna River on a bimonthly basis was carried out. PH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride, nitrite, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and iron were analyzed to determine their concentration levels. From the analysis, the highest mean concentration of the parameters were 8.24 of pH, 7.7 mg/l of DO, 233.4 mg/l of chloride, 55.68 mg/l of COD, 27.95 mg/l of nitrite, 122.22 mg/l of BOD, and 17.05 mg/l of iron. After comparing with prescribed standards, it can be concluded that there is evidence of organic and inorganic accumulation of contaminants into River Kaduna.
Keywords: Chemical, Wastewater, Discharges, Concentration, Effluent
Adewumi O. O., Oladele E. O. and Taiwo I. A.
The study aims at determining the safety of Momordica charantia (Bitter melon) for use by diabetic patient. This study was carried out to ascertain the genotoxic potential of Momordica charantia in mice using the micronucleus assays. A total of forty (40) laboratory albino mice weighing between 20 and 25 grams were obtained from the Zoological garden, University of Lagos. The mice were in eight groups comprising of five animals each. The doses of the extract administered were 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg per body weight and the route of administration was oral by gastric gavages using a metal canula. The control groups A and B were fed with distilled water for 14 and 28 days respectively. The other groups were also treated with a daily dose of the extract for 14 and 28 days at different concentrations. The mutagenic potential of Momordica charantia was assessed with reference to the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the bone marrow of mice. During sacrifice, the bone marrow cells were collected from the femur and smeared on slides. For each mouse, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored for the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and the percentage was calculated. The frequencies of MNPCE/PCE were 0.17 ± 0.09% and 0.13 ± 0.02% in the control group for 14 days and 28 days respectively, 0.33 ± 0.12% and 0.30 ± 0.08% in the 50 mg/kg group, 0.38 ± 0.06% and 0.34 ± 0.09% in the 100 mg/kg group, and 0.24 ± 0.08% and 0.35 ± 0.05% in the 150 mg/kg group. The results showed a significantly increased frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes for the three doses administered. The results were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. This indicates a warning signal to careless and indiscriminate use of the drug by humans.
Keywords: Genotoxicity, Micronucleus, Extract, Micro nucleated, Polychromatic erythrocytes
Mukhtar S., Ahmed A., Najib A. and Jibrin M. A.
This study focuses on the problems and prospects of small scale industries in Kakuri, Kaduna south. The aim was achieved through the following specific objectives; identify the types of small scale industries, examine the problems of small scale industries and analyse the impact of small scale industries on the economic development of Kakuri industrial area. Data were collected through oral interviews and structural questionnaire administered to randomly sampled respondents. The study identified the major problems of small scale industries (SMIs) that hamper the growth of SMIs which includes; inadequate finance, shortage/ change in price of raw materials, poor infrastructures, etc. Based on the findings the study recommends that government should provide soft loans to small scale industries, adequate infrastructural facilities such as reliable power supply and roads. Government should also empower youth through training and financial assistance as a start-up capital.
Keywords: Small Scale Industry, Problems, Prospects, Economic development, Kakuri
Ochoche G. and Odeh C. I.
Reference evapotranspiration is very important because it correlates with the amount of water required by crops and also plays very key role in the hydrological cycle. Evaporation is the process of water loss from the earth surface in which temperature effect is significant while transpiration is water loss from plants. Studying evapotranspiration is also important because of the link between climate change and water scarcity. The reference evapotranspiration for Gassol was estimated and analysis done to observe its trend and variation. In this paper, the FAO Penmann-Monteith model was used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration for Gassol town located in the Sudan Savannah vegetation belt of Nigeria. The annual monthly estimates show a generally recurring seasonal pattern of variation from 1985 to 1991. January through June had lower ET0 compared to July through December. The time series plot of the ET0 estimates from 1985 to 1991 in monthly renditions gives a cyclical pattern of variability with most of the years showing bimodal peaks. Also, an evenly spread data was presented by the normal distribution curve. The periodogram of the estimated reference evapotranspiration gave a dominant periodicity of 9.33 months cycle. The estimates of and the pattern of variation of the reference evapotranspiration as observed for Gassol in this study will very likely experience a continuous downward trend. For proper irrigation management, January to March and October to December should be properly planned.
Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration, Irrigation, Water budget, FAO Penmann-Monteith, Hydrology, Variation
Emeribe C. N., Ogbomida E. T. and Enoma-Calus J. O.
The study investigated the effects of rainfall and temperature variability on crop water requirements of selected food crops in the Sokoto-Rima River Basin, Northwest of Nigeria. Rainfall and temperature datasets were obtained from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 3.21 of the University of East Anglia, Norwich, for a period of 70 years (1943-2012). The suitability of CRU datasets were verified by correlating the datasets with measured rainfall data of Yelwa synoptic station, from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Selected food crops were used for estimating supplementary irrigation water needs in the River basin. Results of Mann-Kendal, Spearman’s Rho and linear regression tests showed strong evidence of increasing annual temperature and potential evapotranspiration with corresponding decrease in rainfall amounts, especially in the northern parts of the basin which houses big irrigation projects and dams such as the Goronyo Irrigation and the Bakolori Dam and Bakolori Irrigation Project. This will impact on the water availability within the basin, through reduction in surface and ground water supply for ongoing irrigation and other water resources projects. Water requirements for selected crops were modeled to ascertain crop sensitivity to climatic variability which will aid in the design of supplementary irrigation water needs models. Results showed that even in the rainfall months, supplementary irrigation of varying quantity is required to complement rainfall, most especially, in the northeast of the basin. Surprisingly, the month of May which marks commencement of rainfall, recorded the highest water need and this has implication for agriculture yields in the region.
Keywords: Climatic variability, Supplementary irrigation, Food crops, Rainfall, Temperature
Bobor L. O. and Omosefe B. E.
Phytoremediation is an economic and environmentally friendly method for the remediation of hazardous crude oil contaminated soils. In this study, phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soils by elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) was investigated over a 40-day period. Grass clumps were harvested and transplanted into plastic buckets filled with 1kg of soil contaminated with 30 ml and 40 ml of crude oil and an uncontaminated control sample. An additional control sample was contaminated with 30 ml of crude oil with no elephant grass. The samples were analyzed periodically for changes in pH, total hydrocarbon content, total viable bacterial count, and total fungal count. The pH of the soil samples generally ranged from 5.26 to 7.85. After 40 days of treatment, the total hydrocarbon content decreased from 320 mg/kg to 38 mg/kg and from 590 mg/kg to 46 mg/kg in samples contaminated with 30 ml and 40 ml of crude oil respectively. Plant growth was uninhibited in contaminated and control samples as the heights increased by 34.5-42.8 cm. The results of the study further demonstrate the phytoremediation capabilities and tolerance of elephant grass in crude-oil contaminated microcosms.
Keywords: Phytoremediation, Elephant grass, Crude oil, Hydrocarbon, Contaminated soil
Butu A. W., Emeribe C. N. and Ogbomida E. T.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrologically induced environmental problem in Benin City and how communities (considered as non-state actors) can be sustainably integrated/participate in monitoring of environmental change, disaster preparedness, post disaster management mechanisms and influence water resources development/management decisions. The study focused on the seasonal flood events of years 2016 and 2017. The study showed that the impacts of flooding in Benin City ranges from submergence of physical infrastructures, loss of agricultural lands/ farms. Using the Focused Group Discussion and Interview methods, 61.9% of flood affected persons agreed that their houses were submerged, 80.5% indicated that their farms, including fish farms, piggery, snail farms, crops and poultry were damaged by floods, 9.6%, indicated having experienced food stock losses due to floods. Most common diseases/sicknesses experienced were diarrhoea (27%), malaria (37%); cough (20%), while sickness due to snake bite was the least (4%). Fe and fecal coli form count values were high during seasonal flood event. Most of the hydraulic regulation projects have failed mainly due to poor feasibility study, inadequacy of hydrological data, non-involvement of relevant stakeholder and the complete absence of community based groups during engineering construction works. The study proposed a State-Non-state actors Integrated Model, which will be registered as a Corporate organization to plan and monitor environmental changes relating to climate change, flood and gully erosion disasters and with the active involvement of NEMA, SEMA, LEMA and other related agencies and NGO. Depending on the size of each Local Government Area in Benin, the proposed committee will comprise of 25-50 members. The study recommends capacity building of members in the form of training and re-training in the areas of early warning, preparedness, adaptation, emergency plan, data collection method/analysis, writing of research grants proposals to fund the activities of the committee and monitoring for environmental changes.
Keywords: Non-state actors, Flooding, Gully erosion, Community participation, Disaster management
Rotowa O. O.
Markets are economic institutions serving as social entities. Diverse people based on ethnic groups, racial backgrounds and cultural traits are linked by a market. Socio-cultural, religious and political activities equally take place in the markets. This study was carried out in Okitipupa the regional headquarter of Ikale people of Ondo State. The sample size of 120 was selected by the purposive sampling technique, taking cognizance that they were fully representative of the populations of the study area. The questionnaires retrieved, were coded and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 16 computer programs and the Excel spreadsheet software. The findings of the study reveal that infrastructure such as road, water, electricity, and waste management facilities were in a deplorable state. This in effect created a problem for market women and a discomfort to patrons of the market. It is recommended that the community should embark on self-help development of the market, create market management committee, seek for the intervention from the government and provide sustainable redevelopment programs for quick improvement of the market.
Keywords: Market, Patronage, Region, Regional development, Okitipupa
Bobor L.O. and Umeh C.M.
The indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents and solid wastes in surface water bodies is detrimental to humans and aquatic organisms. Water quality monitoring is critical to identify pollutants of concern and develop effective management strategies. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the impact of waste disposal on the water quality of Aba Waterside River, Ogbor hill, Aba. Grab samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream and some physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in accordance with standard methods for the analysis of water and wastewater. The results were compared with the Nigerian standard for drinking water quality and the national environmental effluent limitation regulations. Turbidity levels (10 -31mg/l) exceeded the maximum permissible levels for drinking water (5mg/l) and may be associated with higher levels of embedded disease-causing microbes and potentially harmful organic and inorganic substances. The biological oxygen demand midstream (1960mg/l) was remarkably high due to the effluent discharged from the abattoirs at that point. Fecal coliforms (3-198MPN/100ml) were detected in all samples, indicating the presence of other potentially harmful microorganisms. The findings of this study indicate that the water is unsuitable for direct drinking water purposes and stringent water quality control measures should be implemented.
Keywords: Water Quality, Pollution, Aba Waterside River, Drinking Water, Effluents
Onuigbo I. C., Adewuyi T., Odumosu J. O. and Oluibukun G.A.
The volume of traffic generated by land-use pattern varies during different periods of the day but there is usually a predictable pattern of such traffic volumes. Most often, the structure of urban land-use fails to provide easy and convenient traffic movement, which in the case of the study area is usually that of vehicles and pedestrian traffic. The fact is that Minna is presently experiencing rapid urban growth. Both the authorities and citizens seem to simply ignore this and its impact on human existence. The research is based on Road Traffic Network Analysis in Minna, to develop a road network map and determine the causes of Traffic Congestion in Kpakungu specifically. Quickbird satellite imagery was used in analyzing and mapping out the existing road network within the study area. Field survey aspects involving measuring of roads, traffic count, coordinates captured were also undertaken. It was discovered that the causes of the traffic pressure in the study area was as a result of the relocation of Federal University of Technology, Minna to its permanent site in Gidan Kwanu and the relocation of National Examination Council(NECO) Headquarter. Majority of the traffic pressure in the area were as a result of vehicles coming from Maikunkele, Bosso, Maitumbi, Minna central, Dutsen Kura, Chanchaga, Tunga, Sahuka-kahuta and BarikinSale going to Bida, Gidan-Kwanu or NECO office. It was concluded that alternative roads should be provided for vehicle diversion to limit the congestion of traffic on the road.
Keywords: Traffic, Development, Mapping, Traffic congestion, Satellite imagery
Kayode-Ojo N., Ikhide A. O. and Ehiorobo J. O.
Gully erosion is a serious ecological problem in Edo State and has negative impact on agricultural productivity, lives and properties in both urban and rural environments. This paper therefore aims at identifying factors contributing to the formation of gullies and methods of controlling them so that further environmental degradation would be averted. Three gully sites were selected from the three geo-political zones of the State. Data were collected through remote sensing, field topographical survey and soil sampling on gully walls and gully beds. Meteorological and hydrological data were also collected. Slope stability analysis was also carried out. The Kerby-Kirpich equation was applied to estimate the overall time of concentration and Rational formula used to determine the peak discharge. The study revealed that the selected study areas possess all the characteristics of an erosion prone area which are: rainfall of very high intensity, steep slopes resulting in large runoff and soil with low organic content and relatively low shear strength obtained from the geotechnical investigations. Results from the studies revealed that the gully width and depth varied considerably from top to bottom. The cross section shows that the gully is U-shaped for Ekehuan gully and V-shaped for Auchi and Ewu gullies, indicating a large catchment area and a large volume of discharge passing through the gully.
Keywords: Gully erosion, Topographical survey, Meteorological survey, Hydrological survey, Slope stability
Ilaboya I. R. and Izinyon O. C.
Time dependent adsorption study on the sorption of Cr(III) and Mn(II) ions onto acid activated shale was conducted using batch adsorption techniques to investigate the effect of initial metal ion concentration on the process of adsorption. Experimental data obtained were fitted into different kinetic models to analyze the mechanism of adsorption in terms of reaction controlled and transport controlled mechanism. Some of the selected kinetic models include; Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order, Elovich, Film diffusion, Parabolic diffusion and Intra-particle diffusion model. From the result, it was observed based on the linear coefficient of determination (r2) that the experimental data fitted well into the various kinetic model tested. Application of non-linear error function such as error sum of square (SSE), root mean square error (RMSE) and residual average (RA) revealed that the rate limiting step for the adsorption of Cr3+ and Mn2+ ions on acid activated shale was chemical attachment (chemisorption) and the reaction mechanism follows the Pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Keywords: Chemisorption, film diffusion, intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order and parabolic diffusion model
Ilaboya I. R. and Otuaro E. A.
The focus of the study was to evaluate and compare the performance of urea fertilizer, goat manure, pig manure and brewery spent grain for the bioremediation of used engine oil contaminated soil. Soil with no pollution history was collected and subjected to detailed laboratory analysis to determine the total heterotrophic bacterial population, pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total hydrocarbon content. Used engine oil contaminated soil was prepared by adding 250g of used engine oil into a clean dry plastic bucket containing 1kg of unpolluted soil. The mixture was properly mixed and covered with aluminium foil paper before use. The used engine oil contaminated soil was left for a period of four (4) days for stabilization before the commencement of treatment. The entire setup and its content was open throughout the period of experimentation to allow for the influence of atmospheric oxidation. The setup was monitored for twelve (12) weeks and sampling/analysis of the samples was done on a weekly basis to ascertain the progress of treatment. The residual hydrocarbon content after each treatment was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results obtained shows that pig manure is the best substrate for the clean-up of used engine oil contaminated soil with calculated removal efficiency of 64.4% followed by BSG with 51.4% removal efficiency, Goat Manure with removal efficiency of 39.9% and Urea Fertilizer with 33.7% efficiency. The kinetic modelling shows that experimental data fitted well with pseudo-first order kinetic model with calculated error sum of square (SSE) values of (0.0002, 0.0005, 0.0012 and 0.0072) and root mean square errors (RMSE) of (0.0028, 0.0073, 0.0082 and 0.0481). On the accurate prediction of the optimum remediation time, it was observed that the non-linear regression model gave higher coefficient of determination of 0.9824, 0.9812, 0.9886 and 0.9899 compared to linear regression.
Keywords: Bioremediation, Total organic carbon (TOC), Pseudo-first order model, Non-linear regression, Residual hydrocarbon content
GUEST POSITION PAPER
Oknonofua E. S., Oladosu S. O. and Ehigiator-Irughe R.
This paper presents the field of Geomatics as an evolving field, its relevance to other fields of engineering in general as well as other countries who have been practicing it. The rationale for teaching Geomatics Engineering courses in Nigerian Universities as well as making it COREN registrable is borne out of good intention to put it where it rightly belongs. In this work, previous researches on the relevance of Geomatics Engineering in other engineering practices and the advantages the profession has offered other fields of Engineering due to proper placement were reviewed. Geomatics Engineering has metamorphosed over the years and many countries have taken advantages of this development as a welcome idea and Nigeria cannot be exception. This article also revealed the need for the Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN), to urgently incorporate Geomatics Engineering into its structure as a field of engineering practice in Nigeria similar to what is obtainable in other advanced counties. This will help in harnessing the full advantage of the profession in the field of Engineering practices where the knowledge of Geomatics is required.
Keywords: COREN, Geomatics Engineering, Technological Advancement, Professional