Vol. 6 No. 2 – October 2022

CURRENT ISSUE   Vol. 6 No. 2 – October 2022


Heavy Metals in Soils around a Major Cement Factory in Southern Nigeria: Ecological and Human Health Risks
Adewumi A. J., Ogundele O. D. and Adeseko A.A.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0352


ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to evaluate the ecological and health risks associated with metals in soils around major cement company in southern Nigeria. Twenty-one soil samples including a control sample were collected around the cement company. Metals such as Cd, As, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, and Zn were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Results showed that the average concentration of Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn is 7.95 mg/kg, 0.50 mg/kg, 3.00 mg/kg, 1.00 mg/kg, 0.95 mg/kg, 2.00 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg while the average concentration of Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn around the cement production area is 6.30 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg, 1.75 mg/kg, 2.09 mg/kg, 2.62 mg/kg, 6.40 mg/kg and 3.58 mg/kg respectively. The concentration of metals in this area was lower than the recommended standards but higher than those in the background soil. Contamination assessment of metals in soils of Okpella area revealed that they pose a very high degree of pollution and deterioration of the environment. Furthermore, ecological risk assessment revealed that the metals pose medium ecological risks. Health risks assessment uncovered that children residing in this area are prone to non-carcinogenic health risks through dermal contact with Cobalt in contaminated soils of the area. The statistical evaluation showed that metals in the soils might have originated from related sources. It is recommended that proper environmental monitoring of the area be carried out reduce its impact on the health of the populace.

Keywords: Ecological risk, Cement processing factory, Health risk, Contamination assessment, Heavy metals

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Investigation of Speed Bumps on Urban Centre Road in Ugbowo Benin-City, Edo State
Aminu, P.M. and Olubo, O. C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0373


ABSTRACT
This study investigated the use of speed bumps on Nigeria highway with specific reference to the section of the federal road that start from the University of Benin main gate to Oluku Junction Benin city. Using survey methodology for the collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions like who, how much, what, where, when, how many, and how, 50 units of questionnaires each were designed and administered to drivers, motorist and residents at various reference points on the road section to sought information on the effect of the devices on the drivers, motorist and residents. Measurement of the height, width, length and spacing of the device was also carried out with a Measuring tape and digital distance measuring wheel. The result shows that speed bumps in the study area have been effective in speed and accident reduction. However, the devices were not built to specification as the height, width, length and spacing were at variance. In order to promote safety, it was thus advised that speed bumps be taken into consideration on roadways where concentrated generators of pedestrian activity are present for possible prevention of any unlawful placement of the device.

Keywords: Road Safety, Calming, Traffic Management, Speed bumps and Geometry

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Accessibility of Public Healthcare Facilities and Their Distribution in Benin City, Edo State
Moedozie A.N and John-Abebe R.O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0365


ABSTRACT
Access to quality health services determines human health and well-being, especially in this pandemic era. The objective of the study is to examine the factors that affect the utilization and accessibility of public healthcare services within selected local government areas in Benin City. The study adopted the use of 400 questionnaires, which were administered to respondents within the study area. ArcGIS 10 was used to depict health facility disparities within the city, while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation was used to test healthcare utilization. The results indicate that public healthcare facilities are clustered in distribution, having a 0.28 nearest neighbour ratio. The public healthcare facilities are accessible and there are no shortages of healthcare within the study area. Socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, and employment at a were positively related to healthcare accessibility. Approximately 73% of patronage and the type of public healthcare facility influence facility utilization in the study area. Factors influencing accessibility and utilization of healthcare facilities are means of transportation, travel distance, and challenges within healthcare facilities. The quality of services at 48% improves healthcare utilization. This study recommends that health care facilities need to be maintained to encourage more patronage and better service delivery that includes a policy framework for the regular maintenance and provision of necessary equipment and infrastructure that would encourage accessibility and utilization of public healthcare facilities.

Keywords: Accessibility, utilization, public health facility, determinants, healthcare service

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Preliminary Analysis of Daily Rainfall Data from Kano State using Statistical Techniques
Thompson, S., Sanni, I.M., Abubakar, U.A. and Sani, B.S.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0366


ABSTRACT
A 35-year annual rainfall was collected from NIMET to determine the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and also to study the trend of rainfall parameter in the Kano State, Northern Nigeria. The paper captures the average rainfall (normal rainfall) data for thirty-five years period which implies a rainfall of about 1081.56mm. The positive values (above zero) signify rainfalls that were higher than normal (wet); while the negative values (below zero) imply rainfalls that were lower than normal (dry). From the rainfall anomaly, 18 years (52.9%) recorded wet due to the fact that rainfall occurred in those years were greater than the normal rainfall of 1081.56; while 16 years (47.1%) recorded dry because the rainfalls that occurred in those years were below normal rainfall. In the study, Weilbul method was used to determine the return period in order to predict the year of occurrence of maximum rainfall. In addition, Standard Precipitation Index was used to determine periods of dry, normal or wet temperatures. September 1991 recorded the minimum SPI value of -0.86 (moderately dry), while October 2011 recorded the maximum SPI value of 1.88 (moderately wet). This study is carried out because of the importance of agriculture in the region and to Nigeria at large. Kano state is well known to support food production in the country. Also, the presence of dams further buttresses this study. Dams have many purposes; one is agriculture during dry and wet season. It is observed that the rainfall in the basin has no definite pattern.

Keywords: Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), Statistical Analysis, Rainfall, Anomaly, Return period

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Nutritional Evaluation of Orange-fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) Flour Extracted from Various Processing Techniques
Olufelo, J.O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0380


ABSTRACT
Orange flesh sweet potato (OFSP) is one of the world’s most important food security-promoted root crops. Unfortunately, the crop is underutilized in Nigeria due to its poor storability technics and rapid deterioration in storage. To establish baseline data for its better storage and utilization for upgrading its value chain, an alternative approach of processing is thereby expedient to curb the menace. Thus, the nutritional evaluation of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour extracted from various processing techniques was evaluated. OFSP used for the study was sourced from National Root and Tubers Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria. The experiment was carried out in the Department of Crop Production Laboratory, University of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Owerri, Nigeria. The three different processing techniques used were peeled; scratches peeled, and puree samples. The result of the proximate composition, mineral analysis of the flours and the puree showed significant differences among the samples evaluated. However, the crude protein content for both puree and scratched OFSP was insignificantly different. The puree sample recorded the highest protein content (5.48±0.24) and moisture content (85.95±3.89), respectively, and was closely followed by scratched OFSP with (5.02±0.01) while the least was recorded in the peeled sample (4.03±0.04). The study concluded that scratched OFSP through cabinet drier processing was considered the best alternative to the puree method of storage of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes and the best method of processing in areas where electricity is erratic or not available.

Keywords: Deterioration, Nutrient composition, Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato, Proximate composition, Puree.

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Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals in Ground Water Around Dangote Cement Factory Obajana Kogi State Nigeria
Ameh E.M, Yahaya A, Umar A.Y, Ekwoba L, Adegbe A and Dada I.O.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0375


ABSTRACT
The physicochemical characteristics of ground water (well) located at Obajana in Kogi Local Government Area (LGA) of Kogi State were investigated using standard methods. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the impacts of Dangote Cement factory activities located in the area. A total of four (4) ground water samples from different points and the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analysed. The pH value ranges from 6.62 – 7.97, total dissolved solids (TDS) values ranges from 320 – 890 mg/L, electrical conductivity (EC) values ranges from 581 – 850 mg/L, Phosphate ranges from 0.68 – 1.05 mg/L, Nitrate ranges from 5.94 – 6.49 mg/L. Turbidity ranges from 7.87 – 8.24 NTU, alkalinity ranges from 0.1 – 0.4 mg/L, dissolved oxygen ranges from 4.2 – 5.2 mg/L, total hardness ranges from 179 – 476.2 mg/L, CT ranges from 29.89 to 73.74 mg/L and temperature ranges from 27°C to 31°C. Metals like Arsenic ranges from 0.027 – 0.029 ppm, Lead ranges from 0.029 to 0.40 ppm, Zinc ranges from 0.002 to 0.006 ppm, Cadmium ranges from 0.061 to 0.074 ppm, Copper ranges from 0.002 to 0.006 ppm, while Iron ranges from 0.015 to 0.069 ppm, and Nickel ranges from 0.002 to 0.006 ppm. These results obtained fell within the maximum allowable limit set by the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality and World Health Organization for drinking water except for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate and electrical conductivity and also suggested the need to take adequate and necessary steps in regulating and monitoring of drinking water in settlement around industrial areas.

Keywords: Well water, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, Obajana, cement

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Prediction of Biochemical Methane Potential of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Tambe E. B., Okonkwo A. U., Eme L. C. and Ezeomedo I. C.
https://doi.org/10.36263/nijest.2022.02.0360


ABSTRACT
Exploring green energy options constitute a contemporary tenet in designing a sustainable future. This study investigated the independent variables (milling scales, types of fresh fruit bunches and seasons) that define the dynamics of biochemical methane potential (BMP) or bio-methane and organic content in palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated in ADAPALM (large-scale mill) and palm oil mills in its surrounding communities, located in Ohaji/Egbema LGA, Imo State, Nigeria. The eight communities that constitute ADAPALM were categorised into three strata in relation to the number of small-scale mills in each community (1-5mills, 6-10mills, 11-15mills). Besides the lone large and medium-scale mills, a small-scale mill was randomly sampled from a community in each stratum. Four homogenous samples of POME were collected from each mill for laboratory analysis of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) using standard methods for wastewater analysis. Prediction of BMP for each sample of POME composition and fraction of substrate used for cell synthesis (fs) wherein POME is classified was computed using biogas package. Data was analysed using tools of SPSS. Multiple linear regression reveals that there is a significant relationship between the predicted volume of BMP with milling scales and seasons (p<0.01), R2=0.927. Similarly, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) shows that the organic content of POME is significantly related to milling scales and seasons (p<0.01). At fs=8% in methanogenic condition, BMP is 22.800±0.282LCH4/m3POME and 75.532±0.149LCH4/m3POME in the wet and dry seasons respectively. These respectively correspond to methane production capacity of 0.057±0.005KgCH4/KgCOD and 0.014±0.001KgCH4/KgCOD. The variance explained by the dependent variable (R2) indicates the importance of these independent variables in determining the BMP and organic content of POME in the area. The predicted dynamics of BMP and their associated wastewater composition provide useful tools in regulating the wastewater content and evaluating its feasibility for bio-energy development.

Keywords: Dynamics, Bio-methane, Prediction, POME, ADAPALM, Biogas package

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