Assessment of Uncharred Palm Kernel Shell as a Filter Medium in Low Rate Filtration

Jeje J. O.,* and Oladepo K. T.

Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

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 Vol. 5 No. 1  | March 2021 | Pages 13 – 18   |   Cite this article



This study examined the use of uncharred palm kernel shells as a filter medium in low rate filtration as a water treatment alternative. The filter column was made of 150 mm diameter PVC pipe about 1.8 m high. The filter medium (uncharred palm kernel shells) with size range 0.15 – 0.60 mm overlying two layers of graded gravels. The raw water passed through the filter medium and the effluent collected in a metal tank. The effluent was evaluated by monitoring the flow rate, turbidity, filtration rate, bacteriological quality and headloss across the filter bed for a daily six hour run for 14 days. The filter bed was cleaned using the throwing-over method after the filtration rate became appreciably very low at 1.20 l/min-m2. It was found from the results obtained that uncharred palm kernel shells could serve as an effective filter for low rate filtration relative to sand. An average hydraulic loading and filtration rate of 120.35 l/min-m2 and 5.5 l/min-m2 were achieved respectively. The turbidity of the filtered water reduced below 5.5 NTU after the eleventh day and the bacteriological treatment level though excessively high at 65 coliform/100 ml showed reducing tendencies (120/100 ml to 65/100 ml).

Keywords: Filtration, Uncharred palm kernel shells, Headloss, Low rate filtration, Potable water

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Cite this article as:

Jeje, J. O. and Oladepo, K. T. 2021. Assessment of Uncharred Palm Kernel Shell as a Filter Medium in Low Rate Filtration. Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 5(1), pp. 13-18.

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